How to grow and care for muscadine grapes? Muscadine grapes have a lot of flowers falling, the number of fruits is very small, however, it brings a lot of benefits. Muscadine grapes has enough water and contains a lot of sugar. There is another thing that can resist aging.
Muscadine Grapes Quick Info
||Noble Muscadine,Ison muscadine,Carlos muscadine,Dixie Red muscadine
||Processed into juice, wine, jam, jelly, smoothie purees, or nutraceutical products
||The southeastern United States
||At least six hours of sunlight with good drainage
||Full sun and well-draining soil
||Tolerate temperatures down to 10 degrees Fahrenheit
||Quite drought tolerant and will require less water
||Cut the trunk stem back to two or four buds
||¼ pound of 10-10-10 fertilizer
||Toxic to Dogs
Muscadine Grapes Care in Detail
Muscadine Grapes Watering
After muscadine grapes is unearthed in spring, we can water it once. If the soil is not too dry before flowering, try not to water it. After the flowers fall, the muscadine grapes Fruit
enters the rapid expansion period, which is the period that needs the most water. We can water it every 10 days. When the fruit starts to color, we should stop watering to improve the soluble solid content of the fruit. Before burying the soil in winter, we can pour a flood to make muscadine grapes survive the winter safely.
Muscadine Grapes Soil
The influence of soil on the quality of muscadine grapes is very important. Muscadine grapes does not need fertile land, but barren land is especially suitable. The minerals, drainage, pH and topsoil color in the soil deeply affect the quality and characteristics. Chalk, limestone and gravel are the high-quality soil most suitable for muscadine grapes Jufeng Grape
growth. These barren lands also contain a large number of trace elements, which are constantly provided for grape growth. In addition, the soil drainage also has a certain impact on the growth of muscadine grapes. Too fine soil particles will prevent water absorption, and too large particles will make water loss too fast.
Muscadine Grapes Light
What are the light requirements for the growth and development of muscadine grapes? Muscadine grapes
should like light fruit trees and be sensitive to light. Light is the main energy in the life activities of muscadine grapes. When the light is sufficient, the plants are strong and full, the leaves are dark green and shiny, the photosynthesis is strong, there are many products, the Flower
buds are fully differentiated, the berries are well colored, the yield is high and the quality is good. If the light is insufficient, the new shoots are slender, the leaves are thin and yellow, the photosynthetic products are few, the inflorescences are thin, the flowers and fruits fall seriously, the berries are underdeveloped and of poor quality; The poor maturity of new shoots and poor differentiation of flower buds will not only reduce the yield in the current year, but also seriously affect the yield in the second year. The responses of different species and varieties to light were slightly different. American species and European and American hybrids have slightly lower requirements for light than European species. The ability of muscadine grapes leaves to receive light, the upper leaves are significantly better than the lower leaves. Different components of light have different effects on the results and quality of muscadine grapes. Blue purple light, especially ultraviolet light, can promote flower bud differentiation, fruit coloring and improve berry quality. There is more blue and purple light in the reflected light of rivers, lakes and seas, and there is rich ultraviolet light in the mountains. These ecological conditions have a good impact on the growth and development of muscadine grapes
and the improvement of yield and quality. In addition, the quality of light conditions is also closely related to cultivation and management techniques. If the row spacing of fence muscadine grades is too small, the frame surface is too high, and the planting density and shoot retention density are too large, the frame surface will be blocked and the light will be poor.
Muscadine Grapes TemperatureMuscadine grapes have different requirements for temperature in different growth periods.
The root system of muscadine grapes is not resistant to low temperature. It is damaged by freezing at - 4 ℃ and can freeze to death in about two days at - 6 ℃. Therefore, when cultivating muscadine grapes, we should pay special attention to the overwintering protection of branches, vines and roots. Although the absolute low temperature in winter is not lower than - 17 ℃ in some places, there are many fruit branches of buried plants, so we often take buried soil overwintering as one of the high-yield measures. However, in some years, although the plants are buried in the soil, the roots of muscadine grapes are still frozen. There are often young plants that die after being buried in the soil for overwintering. The main reason is that the root system is frozen to death due to insufficient thickness of the buried soil. Muscadine grades has weak tree potential and insufficient plant robustness, which often leads to low cold resistance of muscadine grades.
Muscadine Grapes Humidity
Muscadine grapes has high requirements for humidity. At ordinary times, we need to control the relative humidity of the air within 70% - 80%. However, when flowering, we need to reduce the humidity and keep dry.
Muscadine Grapes Fertilizer
Muscadine grapes has strong growth potential and high requirements for fertilizer and water conditions. But the irrigation should be appropriate, especially 15 ~ 20 days before picking. We should control the amount of nitrogen fertilizer and increase the application of phosphorus and potassium fertilizer. For vineyards that begin to bear a lot of fruit, we should pay attention to increasing fertilizer, keeping the trees strong and prolonging the full fruit period.
Organic fertilizer: we can apply fertilizer in the proportion of 3kg of high-quality manure per 1kg of fruit, and mix 1 ~ 2kg of calcium superphosphate into every 100kg of organic fertilizer. Apply after fruit picking (September).
The fertilization method of muscadine grades is to dig a ditch with a depth of 30 ~ 40 cm, a width of 40 ~ 60 cm and a length equal to the row, once every two years. When applying fertilizer in muscadine grades, we should mix the fertilizer with the soil evenly, then backfill and tread, and then water.
The first muscadine grades topdressing was carried out when the fruit grains of soybeans were large to promote the expansion of fruit grains, and 0.3KG compound fertilizer was applied to each plant; The second time was in the middle of July. When the ear began to color, 0.5 ~ 1kg of calcium superphosphate and 1 ~ 2kg of plant ash were applied to each plant, which could improve the sugar content of fruit and promote coloring and branch maturity.
Muscadine Grapes PruningMuscadine grades pruning
is generally carried out in winter. After the germination of muscadine grades in spring, we should erase the double buds and small buds as soon as possible and retain the strong buds. Before flowering, the main shoot should be picked in time for 2 ~ 3 times, and the auxiliary shoot should be erased to transport more nutrients to the flower organ. At the same time, we can properly sparse some inflorescences and pinch 1 / 4 ~ 1 / 5 of the end of inflorescence 3 ~ 5 days before flowering, so that nutrients can be concentrated to supply the left fruit grains.
In winter, muscadine grapes pruning with medium and long shoots shall be adopted, and about 10 ~ 15 new shoots shall be reserved per square meter, staggered up and down, so as to ensure the growth of 15 ~ 25 leaves per spike, and the yield per mu shall be controlled within 2500 kg. In this way, the ears will be compact, the fruit grains will be neat and mature uniformly, and the flavor and color of berries will be improved.
In order to pursue high yield, many fruit farmers do not loosen the flower sequence and pinch the ear tip in summer, which makes the nutrient supply scattered and the fruit grain size is different. During muscadine grapes pruning
in winter, if we leave more branches and vines, the fruit bearing part will move up quickly and make the ears dense on the upper part of the shelf surface. Due to excessive load and uneven distribution, it is difficult to form high-quality fruits.
In order to improve the light conditions on the shelf surface, reduce diseases, promote flower bud differentiation and enrich branches and vines, muscadine grapes pruning should be carried out on the lush branches and vines after grape harvest. Remove the excessively high and strong branches at the upper part of the rack, the excessively dense weak branches at the lower part, and the branches and vines in an improper position to reduce nutrient consumption and cultivate strong fruiting mother vines. At the same time, muscadine grapes pruning can also reduce the air humidity under the rack and avoid diseases.
Muscadine Grapes Repotting
After muscadine grapes grew in the basin for 1 ~ 2 years, the original container space can no longer meet the requirements of root growth and development, and the nutrients of basin soil are gradually reduced. Therefore, the container needs to be changed from small to large or the basin soil needs to be replaced. Muscadine grapes repotting is generally carried out before the end of dormancy and the beginning of growth. During muscadine grapes repotting or soil change, we should cut off some withered roots and water them immediately after the change, so as to facilitate the recovery of plant growth.
Muscadine Grapes Pest & Disease Control
1. Botrytis cinereaSymptoms:
this muscadine grape disease mainly damages the inflorescence, young fruit and mature fruit of muscadine grapes. When the inflorescence is damaged, it appears light brown spots similar to hot water, which quickly turns dark brown and soft rot. when the weather is dry, the inflorescence wilts, withers and falls off easily, and gray mold layer appears in the inflorescence and young fruit when it is wet; The damage of leaves mostly starts from the edge and injured parts, with high humidity, rapid expansion and gray mold; When the fruit is nearly mature, the fruit stalk and spike shaft can be infected at the same time, and finally cause the whole spike to rot and form a gray mold layer.Control methods:
we should reduce the source of bacteria, try to remove the diseased branches, ears and other residual branches of muscadine grapes, pick the heart in time, cut off the dense auxiliary shoots, tendrils and leaves, avoid excessive use of nitrogen fertilizer, increase the application of potassium fertilizer, reduce humidity and control the spread of bacteria. After the flower ears are extracted, we can spray 800 times of 50% carbendazim, 1000 times of 50% chlorphen and 500 times of 40% carbendazim, 70% Yibao 1000 times liquid, etc. spray 60% tekto 1000 times liquid before harvest, and pay attention to drug rotation.
2. Cob Brown blightSymptoms:
in the early stage of the disease, we can first appear water soaked brown spots on the spikelet axis of the spike branch, and soon become brown and necrotic, dry to black brown, the young fruit shrinks and falls off, leaving the spike axis. After the young fruit is killed, water soaked Brown irregular flake spots occur on the fruit grain, resulting in fruit drop or dark brown round spots, which will not affect the fruit development, but will affect the appearance.Control methods:
we should reduce the water level, improve the ventilation and light transmission conditions, spray Bordeaux liquid, carbendazim or methyltobuzin at the beginning of flowering, and pour 0.5 ~ 1g Paclobutrazol on the root of each muscadine grapes 18 days before flowering to enhance the disease resistance.
This muscadine grapes disease
invades the fruit stalk and cob. The fruit grains at the tip of the ear near the ground first come on. After the disease, small brown round spots with the size of a needle first appear on the fruit surface, then expand and sag, and small black spots arranged in a wheel pattern appear on the surface. In the later stage, the fruit grains fall off, or gradually lose water and dry, and the fruit stalk and cob come on, Produce dark brown oblong concave lesions.Control method:
we can spray 40% fumeishuang 100 times solution or 5 bomeidu stone sulfur mixture before the germination of muscadine grapes. After flowering, for the key period of control, spray once every 15 days during the fruit growth period, a total of 3 ~ 4 times. The commonly used drugs include spray gram and Cobo 600 times solution, 50% Mycobacterium, 200 times lime half dose Bordeaux solution, 50% tobuzin 500 times solution and 75% chlorothalonil 500 times solution, 50% carbendazim 600 times solution, etc. (Find more healthy fruit
4. White rotSymptoms:
the disease of muscadine grapes starts from the ear shaft and fruit stem close to the ground. At the initial stage, it is light brown irregular water stains. After one week, the diseased fruit turns dark brown and soft rot and falls off, accompanied by obvious earthy smell; The incidence of branches and tendrils is mostly at the injured part. At the initial stage, it is brown water stains like elliptical spots. At the later stage, the color becomes darker, the surface is dense, producing gray and white slightly raised small particles, and the cortex is separated from the wooden part, resulting in the withering of branches and leaves above the diseased part.Control methods:
we should cut off the diseased branches of muscadine grapes in time to reduce the field humidity. In the early stage of growth, we should mainly apply nitrogen fertilizer, and after fruit bearing, we should mainly apply phosphorus and potassium fertilizer to improve the disease resistance of plants. The commonly used drugs include 80% spray wettable powder 800 times liquid, 50% rujunte 800 times liquid, 70% chlorothalonil 700 times liquid, 50% thiophanate methyl 800 times liquid, etc, In the early stage of white rot, flusilazole 6000 ~ 8000 times liquid and other therapeutic agents should be sprayed in time.
Muscadine Grapes Propagation
Muscadine Grapes Cutting Propagation1. Preparation tools
First, we need to prepare the muscadine graphs cutting propagation
tool. Scissors for cutting, transparent bottles, marshmallow pots and soil. The flowerpot can be a breathable pottery basin, and the soil should also be selected with some sand. After it is washed with disinfectant water, it can be used as cutting for standby.2. Select branch bud
Many people don't know how to choose the branches and buds of muscadine graphs cutting propagation. In fact, this is also the most important step in muscadine graphs cutting propagation
. We can select a newly sprouted grape branch bud on the grape vine. We must ensure that there are at least two bud points on the cutting branch bud. Cut off the length of about 15cm, and it is best to intercept the position on the bud point, which is most conducive to the recovery of branch bud growth.3. Cutting into water
We should fill the prepared transparent glass bottle with water, then insert the cutting buds of grapes in the water, and then plug the cotton ball in the small bottle mouth, and try to plug it tightly without leaving gaps. It should be noted that the water quality must be clean. As long as a section of bud point is exposed outside the bottle, it can be placed in the basin soil after completion.4. Cutting method
We can put the transparent bottle of muscadine grapes cutting propagation in the water into the previously prepared flower pot, then slowly pour the sand into the flower pot and slowly bury the transparent water bottle. However, the height of the sand should be the same as the mouth of the bottle. Just cover the mouth of the transparent glass bottle and attach a layer of sand to the cotton ball. Finally, just keep the sand moist, and then you can slowly wait for it to take root and sprout.5. Cutting environment
When we are in muscadine grapes cutting propagation, we must maintain carefully. It is best to put the cutting potted plants in a relatively ventilated astigmatism environment indoors to avoid the reduction of rooting rate due to too much sunlight. As for watering, it must be appropriate to keep the sand in a wet state, so as to speed up the rooting time of cutting buds.6. Timely transplanting
During muscadine grapes cutting propagation
, we must pay attention to moving it into the basin in time. Basically, this cutting method can germinate a large number of roots in only one month. At this time, if it is still maintained in water, it will be easy to have rotten roots. It is necessary to transplant the rooted plants into the flower pot in time, and then raise them according to the normal maintenance method.
Muscadine Grapes Propagation in Water
Muscadine grapes propagation in water matrix formula must be a mixed matrix based on organic matrix. The matrix used is peat, organic fertilizer and plant straw, accounting for 1 / 3 respectively. In addition, we can add 5% river sand and 5% vermiculite. The cultivation form is trench type. A planting ditch with a depth of 60cm and a width of 100m is excavated first, and stones are paved at the bottom of 10cm for underground drainage. It is connected with one end of the ditch and waist ditch. The upper 50cm is the matrix layer, with peat, organic fertilizer and river sand mixed under it, plant straw and vermiculite paved on it, poured with water to leach the matrix, and then planted grape seedlings.
The fertilization method of muscadine grades promotion in water is mainly solid inorganic fertilizer. According to the needs of the growth and development of muscadine grapes, we can respectively apply 1 / 5 and 1 / 4 of the topdressing amount per mu for soil cultivation, in which the supplement of trace elements adopts the method of foliar spraying, combined with spraying 2 ~ 3 times a year.
Due to the vigorous growth of hydroponic muscadine grapes, large root system and greatly improved ability to resist diseases and pests, we can use drugs 3 ~ 4 times in the first year of planting. As a result, we can use drugs 5 times less in the growing season of the whole year.
The scaffolds used in muscadine grades distribution in water are better than fence scaffolds. Because the hedge frame is short, the grapes grow vigorously, and the fruit setting is not as good as the shed frame. From the test results, the use of small X-shaped flat scaffold is not only easy to achieve high yield in the early stage, but also easy to improve the quality.
Muscadine Grapes Benefits
Lose weightMuscadine grapes
produces very little, so few people know it. But in fact, muscadine grapes is the oldest variety in the grape family. As early as thousands of years ago, Europeans used muscadine grapes to make wine. Muscadine grapes is rich in fruit acid, which can effectively clean up cholesterol in the blood. It is a sharp tool for weight loss and can help us shape a graceful posture. Friends who want to lose weight must try.
Muscadine grapes, as a kind of grapes, are naturally rich in anthocyanins. These anthocyanins can effectively help the skin resist air oxidation. They are a very good skin care artifact. Often eating some muscadine grapes can help girls lighten their spots and beauty, so they can lose weight and whiten delicious fruits. Don't you want to try?
Soothe the mind and help sleep
There are many aromatic substances in muscadine grapes, which can effectively help us relieve stress and fatigue. Therefore, muscadine grapes also has a very good effect of calming the mind and helping sleep. For friends who often worry too much at night and can't sleep well, we can eat an appropriate amount of muscadine grapes before going to sleep at night, and we can also squeeze grapes into grape juice, It's also a very good choice.
Muscadine Grapes Care FAQs
How to eat muscadine grapes?
The incidence rate of cancer is the lowest among people who eat grapes regularly. It is mainly due to the fact that muscadine grapes contains an anticancer trace element (resveratrol), which can prevent the canceration of healthy cells and prevent the spread of cancer cells. Resveratrol, which is rich in grape skin and grape seeds, is the main component of grapes and an excellent antioxidant food.
We can also eat the grape skin and grape seeds of muscadine grapes together, which is especially beneficial to the health of patients with local ischemic heart disease and atherosclerotic heart disease. The darker the skin color of muscadine grapes is, the more flavonoids are contained, which has a better effect on protecting the heart. The flavonoids contained in grapes are a powerful antioxidant that can resist aging.
Nutrition experts advise people who are prone to liver problems to eat muscadine grades. Because grapes contain natural active substances, glucose, a variety of vitamins and cellulose, which play a good role in protecting the liver, reducing ascites and lower limb edema, increasing plasma albumin and reducing transaminase, which is very beneficial for patients with poor liver and even hepatitis; The fruit acid in grapes can also help digestion, increase appetite and prevent fatty liver after hepatitis; Raisins are an important source of iron supplement for patients with hepatitis. Taking 100 ~ 150g of grape roots in fried water also has a certain auxiliary effect on icteric hepatitis. In a word, grapes are "treasure all over the body". The best way to eat is to fully wash the peel before eating, chew the whole mouth and even the belt seeds, so that the nutrition will reach "100%.
How to make muscadine grapes juice?
When making muscadine grades juice, we should wash muscadine grades first. We can put the same amount of water as grapes in the pot, then put a clean grate and spread the grapes evenly on the grate. Then we have to wait for the water to boil in a high fire, and then change to a low fire to continue steaming muscadine grades juice. If you like sweeter, you can add white rock sugar when steaming. Cool in muscadine grapes juice and drink! Ice tastes better.
How to make muscadine wine?Step 1:
We must select high-quality grapes when making fruit wine. It is best to select some grapes with high sugar content. Muscadine grapes is the most suitable one. In this way, when muscadine wine is fermented, there is enough sugar and the wine tastes better. Of course, the price of high-quality grapes is also more expensive. In order to avoid spending more money, you can buy a large number of grapes when they are on the market.Step 2:
Wash the grapes. When cleaning muscadine, we'd better clean it one by one. We'd better soak it in light salt water for a period of time, and then clean it under flowing tap water. Be careful to remove rotten grapes and vines.Step 3:
Dry the grapes. After muscadine is cleaned, we can put it in leaking containers such as baskets and dry it in a ventilated and cool place.Step 4:
Crush the grapes. We should put the cleaned and dried muscadine in a sterilized container. The container can be a small jar or a small cylinder, but it is best to choose the transparent glass barrel for brewing medicinal wine, especially the glass barrel with valve, which is absolutely the first choice. When crushing muscadine, hands or other items must be disinfected. Add white sugar according to the proportion of ten kilograms of grapes and three kilograms of white sugar, and then stir evenly.Step 5:
Fermentation observation. The fermentation temperature of muscadine wine is preferably between 15 and 25 degrees, preferably not more than 35 degrees. Muscadine wine is in a container and generally starts fermentation after one day. The liquid level was calm at first, but in fact, weak carbon dioxide bubbles had been generated at this time; Two or three days later, a large amount of carbon dioxide is released, and the leather residue floats up to form a cap. When you taste the fruit juice, the sweetness decreases and the wine taste increases. During fermentation, the floating grape skin should be pressed into the juice twice a day with disinfection chopsticks. On the one hand, it can prevent the grape skin from becoming moldy and sour. At the same time, the pigment on the skin can be immersed in the juice to discharge carbon dioxide, so that the yeast can get oxygen and the fermentation is more vigorous. We must pay attention to the disinfection of chopsticks. After the climax, the fermentation momentum of muscadine wine began to weaken until it calmed down. It should be noted here that during one brewing, I did not press down the floating grape skin, nor did it affect the brewing of wine.Step 6:
Press. The method of pressing muscadine is to squeeze or twist with clean cloth bag or gauze to let muscadine wine flow out. After the wine is poured out, add the egg whites to 30 ml of wine, and then add egg whites to foam. Add wine to the mixture, stir them well, and put them in a cool place until they are clear. At this step, you will understand why I choose the glass barrel with valve. In addition to observing the fermentation of grapes, the key is that it is convenient to pour muscadine wine out.
How to make muscadine jelly?
In order to make a make muscadine jelly, we should first prepare an appropriate amount of muscadine, put it in water, add some flour, stir it evenly, gently scrub it by hand, and then put the cleaned muscadine into boiling water;
We can scald muscadine for 30 seconds, take it out and put it in cold water immediately, pull out the grape skin, put the grape skin and grape pulp separately, and prepare a container, put ice powder and rock sugar in place;
Then we can put the muscadine skin into the pot, add some water, boil it over high fire for a while, turn to low fire and continue to cook slowly for a while after the pot is boiling, and cook the soup until it turns red;
Take out the muscadine skin with a leaky spoon. Put the jelly powder and rock sugar into the boiled grape water and continue to cook. Remember to keep stirring until the rock sugar is completely melted in the pot;
Then we can turn off the fire, and then we can pour the soup into the container containing muscadine pulp, let it cool naturally, put it into the refrigerator for refrigeration for a while, and take it out after solidification.Read Next:Best Fruits -19 Fruits That Can Improve Your HealthBlack Tartarian Cherry Trees Grow and Propagation