Peach tree is a popular fruit tree and peach blossom tree is very beautiful. Peach tree is a favorite fruit with juicy, sweet taste, attractive aroma, gorgeous color and rich nutrition. So how to plant peach tree, peach tree care & propagation guide for you.
Peach Tree Quick Info
|Santa Rosa, Red Beauty, Red Top, Elegant Lady and O'Henry
|A variety of desserts
|Well-drained and loamy
|At 45 degrees Fahrenheit or lower
|At least 36 inches of water per year
|Remove old, slow growing, non-fruitful shoots
|Be fertilized twice a year
|Stems, leaves, seeds contain cyanide
Peach Tree Care in Detail
Peach Tree WateringThe adaptability of peach tree to soil water is that it is most afraid of flooding.
Medium and short-term ponding in peach garden will cause the death of peach tree plants. Orchards with poor drainage or high groundwater level often cause premature root senescence, thin leaves, shallow leaf color and reduced assimilation, resulting in defoliation, fruit drop, glue flow and even plant death. Insufficient soil water will slow down or stop the growth of root system of peach tree, weaken the growth of new shoots, poor leaf development, and shrink or fall off fruits. Therefore, in peach cultivation, timely irrigation according to the water demand of its growth is particularly important. Peach tree
needs a lot of water in new shoots, young fruit stage and fruit expansion stage, so it should be irrigated in time.
Peach Tree Soil
Peach tree can be planted in mountains and plains, and in clay and sandy soil. However, peach tree is most suitable for sandy soil with good drainage and deep soil layer. Gum disease is easy to occur on viscous soil. Peach trees like slightly acidic soil, which is most suitable at pH 4.9-5.2. When the content of calcareous in soil is relatively high, yellow leaf disease will occur due to iron deficiency. On the barren sandy soil, the vegetative growth of peach tree is inhibited, the flower bud forms early, enters the fruiting stage early, the fruit is early, the individual is small, the yield is low, and anthrax is easy to occur.
Peach Tree LightPeach tree has high altitude and strong light, forming the characteristics of peach like light
, which is characterized by small crown, weak dryness, sparse crown and long and narrow leaves. According to the measurement, the compensation point of peach tree is about 2.6klx and the light saturation point is about 40klx (the light intensity at noon on sunny days in northern summer is about 100klx). Peach tree was sensitive to light intensity. When the light intensity decreased to 30% ~ 50% of natural light, the growth of new shoots was significantly inhibited, the leaves became thinner, the leaf area increased, the leaf grid tissue became thinner, the sponge tissue became more loose, the chlorophyll content in the leaves increased and the net photosynthetic rate decreased; Insufficient light from bud germination stage to flowering stage will reduce pollen germination rate and fruit setting rate; The growth of young fruit was retarded and a large number of fruit fell off due to insufficient light during the expansion stage of young fruit; Insufficient light will also reduce the single fruit weight and the contents of soluble solids, soluble sugar and titratable acid of peach tree, which is not conducive to the formation of anthocyanin.
The light loving characteristics of peach tree require that in cultivation, attention must be paid to controlling the peach tree population structure and tree body structure, reasonably regulating the branch and leaf density, adopting the open center tree shape and pruning many times in the growing season, so as to make the peach garden well ventilated and transparent. In addition, when using protected cultivation to produce off-season peach in the north, the light intensity is obviously insufficient. Producers must pay great attention to adopting various possible methods to minimize the loss of natural light in the process of entering the facilities. Low light resistant cultivation of peach tree is a major technical problem to be solved in the production of protected plants.
Peach Tree TemperaturePeach tree likes temperature and bears cold, and has a wide range of temperature adaptation.
It is distributed from 40 ° south latitude to 50 ° north latitude, but the economic cultivation is 25 ° ~ 45 ° north latitude. The optimum temperature for the growth of peach tree is 18 ~ 23 ℃, and the optimum temperature for fruit ripening is about 25 ℃. Too high or too low temperature will affect the normal growth and development of peach tree. Peach has a certain cold resistance, and the general varieties can withstand the low temperature of - 25 ~ - 22 ℃, but it should be noted that the resistance to low temperature in winter is not equal to the resistance to severe temperature change in early spring. The cold resistance of peach tree is also different in different periods. The flower buds in dormancy are only damaged by freezing at - 18 ℃. After dormancy is released, the cold resistance of peach organs gradually decreases. The flower buds in germination can withstand the low temperature of - 5 ℃. When the minimum temperature in flowering drops to - 3 ~ - 1 ℃, the flower organs are vulnerable to freezing damage.
Peach Tree Humidity
Humidity affects transpiration, photosynthesis, absorption of mineral elements and occurrence of diseases and pests of peach tree. Therefore, humidity management is one of the important links of peach tree facility cultivation. If the air humidity is too high, the transpiration of peach tree is blocked, which affects the absorption and utilization of mineral elements by roots. At the same time, it will lead to the spread of diseases. Excessive humidity at flowering stage will lead to slow anther cracking, non dispersal of pollen, pollen rupture and the prevalence of flower rot. The air humidity is required to be high during germination and germination, 70% ~ 80%, 50% ~ 60% at flowering and below 60% after leaf expansion. The air humidity in solar greenhouse is often more than 90%. Therefore, measures must be taken to reduce the air relative humidity in order to ensure the normal production of peach tree.
We should take different measures to reduce the temperature of peach tree according to the specific situation. The moisture in the air in the facility mainly comes from indoor soil evaporation from germination to leaf spreading. The air humidity and temperature required from germination to germination are high and low. The humidity can be reduced while ventilation and cooling. The air humidity is required to be 50% ~ 60% from pre flowering to leaf development, and film mulching must be carried out at the same time of ventilation. From leaf spreading to harvest, the water in the air in the facility mainly comes from leaf transpiration and soil water evaporation. Early water stress has little impact on the yield and quality of peach tree. Irrigation should be minimized and ventilation and cooling should be combined to basically control the air humidity within the required range. In case of irrigation, drip irrigation or small ditch irrigation under film shall be adopted. Otherwise, it is difficult for us to control the air humidity required by peach tree. After the hard core period begins, the daytime temperature is high and the ventilation volume increases. The air humidity can also be controlled below 60% by paving film and ventilation. When the indoor temperature is too high and can not be eliminated quickly, we can install a constant temperature ventilation device to force ventilation and dehumidification for a long time without reducing the indoor temperature.
Peach Tree Fertilizer
Peach tree has large shoot growth, large fruit and is sensitive to nitrogen. Too much nitrogen will cause overgrowth and not easy to form flower buds, delaying fruit bearing; The growth of peach tree was inhibited when there was too little nitrogen. Potassium fertilizer has a significant effect on the size, color and flavor of peach tree fruit. When potassium is deficient, the fruit is small, the color is poor and the flavor is light. Peach tree needs less phosphate fertilizer. (Find more healthy fruit
Peach Tree Pruning
How to prune a peach tree? Peach tree pruning for young trees and primary fruit trees: focus on cultivating skeletons, mainly light cutting, and sparse useless long branches, lower vertical branches, thin weak branches and competitive branches to increase the fruit volume.
Pruning of fruit trees: we should focus on controlling the phenomenon of upper strength and lower weakness, and adopt the combination of short cutting and sparse cutting to sparse dense branches, overlapping branches, thin weak branches, dead branches and useless long branches. It is better to cut 8-10 pairs of flower buds.
Pruning at the end of full fruit and aging: we need to use the bare branches in the inner and middle and lower parts of the tree crown to cultivate new unit branches to fill the space. For the retraction pruning of perennial branches, the middle branch or hidden bud should be used as the cutting bud to renew and rejuvenate, restore the tree potential and prolong the bearing life.
Peach tree pruning mainly focuses on winter pruning, which is carried out from falling leaves in autumn to budding in the next spring.
Peach Tree Repotting
The basin changing of peach tree repottingeach tree is usually carried out in spring or autumn. Spring peach tree repotting is from April to may, and autumn basin changing is from September to October. The pot change must be carried out on a sunny day. If the weather is cloudy and the air humidity is very high, it is easy to affect the recovery of plants. The reason why we choose to change pots in spring and autumn is mainly because the climate is mild, which helps the plants adapt to the new basin soil.
Before preparing for peach tree repotting, we need to stop watering and let the soil dry gradually. If the soil is too wet, it is easy to hurt the root when removing the pot. When the soil becomes dry, loosen the soil along the inner wall of the flowerpot, separate the basin wall from the basin soil, and then gently take the plants out of the basin. Be careful when removing the basin to avoid damaging the root.
After decanting the peach tree, we need to remove some old soil from the roots and check the growth of roots. If there are old roots and dead roots, they should be cut off in time to avoid affecting the plant growth after decay. After pruning, spray carbendazim or smear it with plant ash, which can sterilize and avoid wound infection.
Before peach tree repotting, we should prepare loose and fertile soil in advance, which is conducive to root respiration and growth. Put the plant upright in the flower pot and fill it with pot soil. After being put into the pot, it should be watered to supplement the water in the previous dry period. At the same time, it should be placed in the semi shade to avoid strong light. After the plant recovers its growth, it can be maintained normally.
Peach Tree Pest & Disease Control
Scab is one of the main diseases of peach blossom tree
. I believe we have all seen large and small scars on peach trees or dwarf peach tree. They are left by scab, which mainly occurs in the fruit ripening period from May to July. It is easy to occur in rainy and humid climate. This peach tree disease mainly endangers the fruit and tree tops. When it occurs, the fruit appears dark green disease spots, which change continuously with the growth of the fruit. When the fruit is mature, the disease spots become dark purple or black, the disease spots are sunken, and fruit cracking symptoms occur when the condition is serious. Light brown disease spots appear on the top of peach tree after infection. With the expansion of disease spots, the lesions will swell and glue flow will occur.
Prevention and control methods: in winter, we should clean the infected tree tops of peach tree, clean the orchards, reduce pathogens, trim appropriately, increase the ventilation and light transmittance of plants, and spray carbendazim, zineb, chlorothalonil and other agents during germination, which has a good prevention effect.
Anthrax mainly occurs in the rainy season in autumn. It is easy to occur in the young fruit stage of peach tree, and it is more serious in the warm and humid environment. It is mainly harmful to the fruit. When the fruit is infected, water stains appear on the epidermis, the lesions expand and become reddish brown, the lesions are concave, and there are concentric wheel wrinkles in the center. When the humidity is high, the disease spots will produce a large number of small sticky spots, and finally the fruit will rot and fall off or the stiff fruit will remain in the tree.
Control methods: we should select varieties with strong disease resistance according to local conditions, strengthen fertilizer and water management, increase phosphorus and potassium fertilizer, improve plant disease resistance, pay attention to drainage and waterlogging prevention and reduce soil moisture. Clear the garden thoroughly in winter, burn or bury the diseased branches, stumps, diseased fruits and fallen leaves in a centralized manner, and bag them in time to prevent and control the disease. When peach tree is sick, it can be sprayed with mancozeb, thiophanate methyl and other chemicals for prevention and control.
3. Gum disease
Glue flow disease is also one of the main diseases of peach blossom tree. It can occur in the period of slightly higher temperature. This kind of peach tree disease mainly endangers the branches and stems of peach tree. When it occurs, there are small bumps on the branches and stems. Generally, glue flow will not occur in that year. In the next year, these small bumps will break and flow out colorless, translucent and viscous soft glue, which will sometimes harm the fruit. After the fruit is infected, yellow colloid will flow out.
Prevention and treatment methods: we should strengthen fertilizer and water management, improve the disease resistance of plants, prune scientifically and reasonably, pay attention to thinning flowers and fruits, and reduce the load. In the season of onset, spray insecticides such as metoprolol, mancozeb, benomyl wettable powder, etc. to prevent the disease, and pay attention to the alternative use of decoctions, so as to avoid drug resistance of plants, resulting in more serious disease later.
4. Mosaic disease
Mosaic disease is a disease of many plants. It does great harm. Peach trees
are mainly infected by grafting. In addition, aphids and mites can also spread the disease. After the fruit is infected, it grows slowly, the pulp is not sweet, and has a bitter taste; After the leaves are infected, some will appear yellow and white mottle, or fade green spots again, and most will appear yellow leaves and curl.
Prevention and control methods: we should timely clean up the diseased plants found locally. In addition, we should strengthen the pest control work in the orchard to avoid the disease on a large scale.
Peach Tree Propagation
Peach Tree Cutting Propagation
Peach tree cutting propagation is generally divided into two methods, one is soft cutting and the other is hard cutting. The adoption of two kinds of peach tree cutting propagation is mainly selected according to different cutting time. Hard branch cutting of peach tree can be carried out in spring and autumn from October to November. Soft branch cutting of peach tree is mainly carried out in the season of rapid growth of peach tree in spring, but it is better to adopt soft branch cutting of peach tree during this period, so the survival rate is higher.
Selection of cuttings:
No matter what kind of peach tree cutting propagation
, we must pay attention to that when selecting cuttings, we need to select healthy and thick cuttings without diseases, so that the survival rate of cuttings in the later stage can be improved.
Processing of peach tree cutting propagation insert:
If we adopt hardwood cutting, it is best to carry out it in spring. Select the lignified branches to ensure that they are disease-free and robust, and intercept about 20 cm. When cutting cuttings, it is best to use sterilized sharp scissors and quick oblique cutting. We can trim the cut branches. Generally, three to four buds and about three leaves are reserved. It is best to cut half of the leaves to avoid water evaporation. It is best to cut the upper end of the cuttings flat. Generally, cut the cuttings two centimeters away from the top bud.
The cut peach tree cutting insert should be used in time, which is conducive to ensuring the survival rate. If it can not be used in time, it is best to keep it properly, such as wax sealing or sand storage. However, the technical requirements of wax sealing are relatively high, and improper operation is easy to cause scald and death of insert.
The most suitable season for soft branch cutting of peach tree is from May to July. The annual new branches above the mother branch are generally selected for cuttings. The branches must not be completely mother branch, and there can be a small amount of lignification at the bottom. The length is the same as the hardwood cuttings above. The treatment principle of cuttings is the same as that of hardwood cuttings.
Peach tree cutting propagation cuttings must also be disinfected, preferably in about 800 times of 50% carbendazim wettable powder solution, and then dipped in rooting water. When cutting, insert 2 / 3 of the cuttings into the cutting bed, compact and water.
We should maintain the temperature of the slotted bed. Generally, the most suitable temperature is about 20 degrees. The slotted bed should be kept wet and often drenched with water, but not too much. Generally, the cuttings of peach tree cutting propagation will take root in a month. Generally, we can transplant according to the growth of cuttings in 40 to 50 days.
Peach Tree Graft PropagationPeach tree graft propagation
can be divided into spring planting and autumn planting. Spring planting is generally carried out from soil thawing to germination, which is conducive to slow seedlings without causing freezing damage to seedling roots; Autumn planting is generally carried out after falling leaves in autumn and before soil freezing, which is conducive to early germination in spring. The best peach tree graft propagation time is in the middle of March in spring, followed by the middle and early September in autumn. It is too early to produce glue flow, and the survival rate is low too late. In production, more farmers prefer to conduct peach tree graft propagation in spring and summer. Generally, it is between February and April in spring and between May and August in summer, and the survival rate is relatively high.
Rootstock and scion selection
For the rootstock of peach tree graft propagation, we should choose the peach or dwarf peach tree seedlings with strong growth, no diseases and insect pests and thick stems of more than 0.5cm. It has the characteristics of fast growth and extremely fast growth after grafting. The scion should select the new branches on the peach trees of excellent varieties that have grown for more than 3 years. The branches should be smooth and tender, grow strong, free of diseases and pests, full flower buds and consistent stem diameter. This is conducive to the combination of cambium and improve the survival rate during peach tree graft propagation.
Peach tree graft propagation method
We also need to prepare peach tree graft propagation grafting tools, plastic binding strips, knives, etc. there are many grafting methods in production, and bud grafting is commonly used. Select a bud eye on the rootstock, peel it up and down 1 cm with a knife, the depth reaches the xylem, and then peel off the bark and bud eye together. Then cut a bud bud of the same size on the scion in the same way, align it, press it into the peeled bud bud, closely fit it, and then tie it firmly with a plastic binding strip.
Management of peach tree graft propagation.
We can check every 7-10 days after grafting, and wipe out the bud eyes of rootstock mountain in time, so as to concentrate nutrition and make the grafted buds grow vigorously. In addition, we can remove the plastic bandage after the wound at the peach tree graft propagation site is healed to avoid overflow injury. After the peach tree graft propagation survives, the plant grows vigorously and needs a large amount of fertilizer. We should apply fertilizer in time, mainly nitrogen fertilizer, and spray foliar fertilizer to promote rapid plant growth.
Peach Tree Varieties
There are four common tree varieties of peach trees:Natural open center shape:
this peach tree
variety structure is the trunk, which is cut at 60-70cm. Three main branches are selected and scattered on the trunk, and the angle between the main branches and the trunk is 45-60 degrees. Each main branch extends outward in a straight line, and each main branch is layered with 2-3 side branches on its outside to make use of the canopy space. This kind of peach tree tree has the advantages of happy crown, good light and high yield.Clump shape:
1. Multi trunk clump shape: this peach tree variety is a seedling split on-site with planted rootstocks. After survival, there are many germinating branches. 4-6 branches are selected as the trunk, and the secondary branches on the new shoots are used as the main branches and side branches. Generally, it is not short cut. 2. Multi main branch cluster shape: for seedlings with only one new shoot after budding or splitting, remove new leaves about 20 cm from the ground in summer, and select 5-6 secondary lateral branches as main branches and lateral branches. The advantages of this tree shape are light pruning, fast crown formation and early fruit.Variation trunk shape:
this peach tree variety has a central leading trunk, on which two-layer main branches are configured, and the number of main branches of the whole tree is 5-6. The central leadership has adopted a small and complete rise. When configuring the upper main branches, the distance between layers shall be appropriately increased to avoid overlapping up and down. The advantages of this tree shape are firm crown structure, good ventilation and light transmission, thick fruit layer and high yield in the early stage.Creeping shape:
this peach tree variety shape is suitable for cultivation in cold areas and is conducive to cultivating soil and preventing cold in winter. There are two cases. One is to form a 45 degree inclination between the trunk and the ground during planting, and its direction is determined according to the terrain and wind direction, starting to form a fan-shaped branch at 30-40 cm. The other is to cut 3-4 buds on the ground after planting and cultivate them into main branches, so that the main branches form an angle of about 45 degrees with the ground.
Peach Tree Benefits
The leaves of peach tree can clear away heat, detoxify, kill insects and relieve itching. It is suitable for the treatment of malaria, carbuncle, furuncle, hemorrhoids, eczema and other symptoms. In addition, peach leaves contain tannin, which can relieve pain and itch. It is very suitable for use in summer. It can be used externally or orally. Apply the juice to the skin to stop itching. It can also relieve headwind and headache.
In summer, some people often have no appetite, but often at this time, people will eat some nearby food with appetite, such as stimulating food and so on. Peaches are rich in soluble dietary fiber. Pectin can also open your appetite. It can also relieve constipation for people with constipation in summer, so as to excrete metabolic products from the body, which is very good for people's intestines and stomach.
When our liver is in a negative state, the body may secrete a substance, which will cause great damage to the liver. Some people drink regularly. A healthy liver is much worse than those who don't drink. Peaches have the effects of thirst quenching, qi stagnation and liver depression. For people with poor sense of health and people with insufficient blood, it may be healthier to eat peaches regularly and eat an appropriate amount every day.
Peaches contain a lot of water and also have the function of nourishing yin and generating body fluid. In addition, peaches are also good for the heart. Therefore, regular consumption of peaches may be of great benefit to the human body. Xiao Bian's suggestions. People who need to nourish yin and generate fluid can often eat peaches. This may make your heart better and your body healthier!
Peach Tree Care FAQs
How to grow a peach tree from seed?
First of all, we should remove the pulp outside the peach kernel and wash the peach kernel. Choose the peach stones left after eating in summer and dry them in the sun. A large and full one can be used. It is moldy, moth eaten and incomplete. A small peach stone is not needed.
Then we can put the peach stones into 70-80 degree water and stir them with a small stick until the water is cool to heat the seeds evenly. Soak for 24-48 hours and change the water once in the middle to prevent the seeds from mildew.
As for the seedling tank of Peach Seeds, we can wash the container with paper back, tin box, pop can, etc., and tie several small holes at the bottom to prevent the root of seeds from mildew. Peach trees have strong adaptability. They can be raised with topsoil under farmland or roadside trees, and then put a spoonful of sauce residue or calcium superphosphate as fertilizer. For sowing before and after the Qingming Festival, first lay a layer of small stones at the bottom of the seedling tank, mix the fertilizer and soil evenly, and then fill the container without compaction. Put one grain in the small pot and 2-3 grains in the large pot, with a depth of 2-3 times the seed diameter. Gently pier the container a few times, let the soil compact naturally, and then pour enough water. (the first time after planting, the water must be poured enough and thoroughly, or the seedling tank with seeds can be put into a basin filled with water to let the seedling tank absorb water naturally from the bottom until the soil is completely wet.) the seedling shall be irrigated once every other day, and then every few days. Bud after 2-3 weeks.
The seedlings sown from peach tree seeds are called seedlings. The ungrafted seedlings take a long time to blossom and can bloom, but they have to wait. If peach tree is potted, it may take longer to flower. In addition, the peach tree potted plants need to be pruned in time to control the height and maintain a good tree shape.
Why my peach tree leaves curling?Peach tree leaves curling
is a common disease during peach planting. When it is serious, it will seriously affect the growth and yield of peach trees. Therefore, prevention and control measures should be taken in time. The causes of peach tree leaves curling generally include the following three points:
(1) In spring, when peach trees are budding, the temperature is low, the peach leaves grow slowly, and the bacteria are easy to invade. There will be more peach tree leaves curling. When the temperature is high, the leaves grow rapidly, which is not conducive to the invasion of bacteria, reduces the possibility of disease, and the leaves rarely curl. According to the research, peach leaves are prone to curl when the temperature is 10-16 degrees, but rarely when the temperature is above 21 degrees.
(2) The leaves of early maturing varieties are prone to curl, while late maturing varieties are less.
(3) In long-term low-temperature and rainy years or regions in spring, the soil is too wet, the occurrence of peach tree leaves curling will be more serious, and the probability of warm and dry in spring is relatively low.
What are the prevention and control measures for peach tree leaves curling? First of all, we can spray stone sulfur mixture in winter and spring to eradicate pathogens. Secondly, we should spray fungicides such as carbendazim or nail mop when peach buds stretch in spring to prevent occurrence.
If peach tree leaves curling serious orchards, we should timely water and fertilize to enhance the tree potential and improve the disease resistance. At the same time, we should remove the diseased leaves and take them out of the orchards for burial. We should timely prevent and control the less diseased ones to avoid the expansion of the disease. Potassium dihydrogen phosphate + brassinolate can be sprayed on the leaves once every 7-10 days, 2-3 times.
What does a white peach tree look like?
White peach is a variety of peach. The fruit of this variety is full, full and round. The appearance color is white pink. In high temperature weather, the appearance will gradually emit pink. The pulp inside is also milky white, with a very strong aroma. It tastes crispy and sweet, plump and juicy, and contains high sugar content, which is very sweet. Moreover, the nutritional value of white peach tree fruit is particularly high, including vitamins, fructose and so on.
What does a full grown peach tree look like?
Generally, the young stage of peach trees is 1-3 years after colonization. The main characteristics of this stage are vigorous growth, often germinating a large number of developmental branches, long branches, long fruit branches, sparse flower buds, high node position and low fruit setting rate. The task of shaping and pruning in this period is to expand the tree crown as soon as possible, basically complete the shaping task, quickly cultivate all kinds of fruiting branch groups, and promote early fruit, early and high yield. Therefore, full growth peach trees planted for at least 3 years will bear fruit. The flowering period of peach trees is from March to April, and the fruit ripening period varies from variety to variety, usually from August to September.
The full fruit period is 4-15 years after peach planting. Generally, 5-7 years after planting, it enters the full growth peach tree. The maintenance period of full fruit period varies greatly with varieties, management level, planting density, tree shape and other conditions, and can generally be maintained to about 15 years.
The pruning in the period of full growth peach tree
should maintain the balance of tree potential and good subordination, as well as strong nutritional growth. Folk data show that wild peach trees can live for about 350 years, which should be fictitious, because peach trees are pulpy and easy to attract insects. If you want the full growth peach tree to live longer, the only way is to carefully fertilize, graft and cultivate it.Read Next:Best Fruits -19 Fruits That Can Improve Your Health