Written by Maggie
Jan 26 2021
Watermelon belongs to the Cucurbitaceae, originally produced in Africa. Watermelon is a dicotyledonous flowering plant with vine-like shapes and feathery leaves. The fruit it bears is pepo fruit, a fleshy fruit peculiar to the melon of Lurucaceae. Watermelon is a pseudo fruit developed from three inferior ovaries with a lateral membrane in the carpel. The main edible part of a watermelon is the developed placenta. Fruit skin is smooth, green or yellow, fruit flesh juicy red or yellow, white is rare.
The main root system of watermelon is more than 1 meter deep, and the root group is mainly distributed in the root layer of 20cm to 30cm. The root system is thin and easy to break, and the regeneration power is weak, and it is not resistant to transplantation. The seedling stem is erect, 4-5 postcode elongation, 5-6 leaves after prostrate growth, branching strongly, can form a 3-4 grade lateral branches. Leaves of Watermelon are alternate, deeply lobed, lobed, and entire. Heteroecious and monoecious. Male flowers are present in the 3rd to 5th nodes of the main stem, and female flowers are present in the 5th to 7th nodes. A few bisexual flowers may appear in the flowering period. Corolla is yellow. Ovary of Watermelon is inferior, lateral membrane placenta. Male and female flowers are with nectaries, moths, flowers open in the morning and closed in the afternoon. The fruit has a round ball, an oval shape, an elliptical ball, a cylindrical shape. The fruit of the Watermelon surface is smooth or has a furrow, the epidermis is green white, green, dark green, dark green, black, between has the fine reticulate line or strip. The pulp has milky white, light yellow, deep yellow, light red, bright red and other colors. Meat quality is divided into tight meat and sandy flesh. Seeds of Watermelon are flattened, ovoid or oblong-ovoid, smooth or cracked. Seed coat is white, light brown, brown, black or brown, monochrome or variegated. Seed 1000-seed weight: 100-150g for large seed type, 40-60g for medium seed type and 20-25g for small seed type. Zucchini type 145-200g.
Watermelon likes warm, dry climate, cold tolerance, growth and development of the optimum temperature 24-30 degrees, root growth and development of the optimum temperature 30-32 degrees, the lowest temperature of root hair 14 degrees. Watermelon needs a large temperature difference between day and night during its growth and development. Watermelon drought, not wet, cloudy and rainy days, humidity is too large, susceptible to disease. Watermelon likes light and needs a lot of nutrients because it has a long growth period. With the growth of the plant, the fertilizer requirement of watermelon increases gradually and reaches the maximum value when the fruit grows vigorously. Watermelon adaptability is strong, with loose soil, deep soil layer, good drainage of sandy soil best. Weak acid, pH 5-7.
Cultivated throughout China, a lot of varieties, outer pericarp, pulp, and seed forms of Watermelon are diverse, to Xinjiang, Gansu Lanzhou, Shandong Dezhou, Jiangsu Liyang and other places are the most famous. Watermelon’s original species may come from Africa, has long been widely cultivated in the world's tropical to the temperate zone, the Jin and Yuan Dynasties began to be introduced into China.
Watermelon's main disease has blight, anthrax, virus disease, powdery mildew, blight, the main insect pest has a small ground tiger, aphid, red spider, yellow keep melon, melon maggot, latent leaf fly and so on. Crop rotation should be carried out for more than 4-5 years, and disease-free seeds should be selected. The seeds of Watermelon should be soaked in 100 times formalin solution for 30 minutes for disinfection. The main prevention and control methods of fungal diseases are as follows: remove and burn the infected plant in time when it is found, and disinfect the sick cave with lime or 50% disodium 400 times. At the beginning of the disease can be poured into the rhizosphere 50% of the diazonium 500-1000 times the solution prevention. Promote watermelon grafting and root replacement technology. Application of decomposed organic fertilizer and increased application of phosphorus and potassium fertilizer. During the growth period of watermelon from May to July, methods such as 70% topline 1000 times solution, 25% carbendazim 500-700 times solution, 50% dioxin 1000 times solution and 1:1:200 times Bordeaux solution were used alternately for control every 7 to 10 days. To small ground tiger, melon maggot, yellow keep Watermelon to be able to use early spring many plows much harrow to eliminate worm egg, with sweet and sour lure moth to eliminate adult insect, with 90% of trichlorpus 800-1000 times liquid pour root or add a few waters to mix fresh grass, stir fry sweet cake fat lure kill.Red spider, leaf miner can spray 50% detonate 1000 times solution or 80% dichlorvos 1000-1500 times solution.
Watermelon is called the "king of summer". Watermelon is refreshing and thirsty, tastes sweet and juicy, and is the best fruit in summer. Watermelon does not contain fat and cholesterol, but also contains a lot of glucose, malic acid, fructose, protein amino acids, lycopene and rich vitamin C, etc. Watermelon is a kind of food rich in high nutrition, pure and safe to eat. The flesh usually contains 5-12% sugar, including glucose, fructose and sucrose. The sweetness increased with the increase of sucrose in the late-ripening stage.