Schisandra is the dried and mature fruit of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. or Schisandra sphenanthera Rehd. et Wils. The former is often called northern schisandra and the latter is called southern schisandra.
In autumn, the fruits are picked when they are mature, dried or steamed and dried to remove the stalks and impurities. Schisandra is divided into south and north. Ancient medical books said it was first listed in Shennong's Materia Medica as the first top-grade Chinese medicine in Shennong's Materia Medica. It has high medicinal value and has the effect of strengthening the body. It is used in combination with Qiongzhen Ganoderma to treat insomnia.
Schizandra morphological characteristics
The young branches of Schisandra are reddish-brown, and the old branches are grayish brown, often wrinkled and flaky. Leaf membranous, broadly elliptic, ovate, obovate, broadly obovate, or nearly round, 5-10 cm long, 3-5 cm wide, sharply pointed at apex, wedge-shaped at base, and shallowly serrated with callose on upper margin, Near base entire. The lateral veins of Schisandra have 3-7 on each side, and the network veins are slender and not obvious; the petiole is 1-4 cm long, and the two sides are very narrow wings due to the downward extension of the leaf base. Male flower: pedicel 5-25 mm long, with narrowly ovate bracts below the middle, 4-8 mm long, tepals pinkish white or pink, 6-9 pieces, oblong or elliptical oblong, long 6-11 mm, 2-5.5 mm wide, the outside is narrower. The stamens of Schisandra are about 2 mm long, and the anthers are about 1.5 mm long. There are no filaments or the outer 3 stamens have very short filaments, and the septum is concave or slightly protruding. Arranged upright on the top of a columnar receptacle about 0.5 mm long, forming a nearly obovate group of stamens; the peduncle of the female Flower
is 17-38 mm long, and the tepals are similar to the male flower; the group of pistils is nearly ovoid, 2-4 mm long, Carpel 17-40, the ovary of Schisandra Chinensis ovoid or oval ellipsoid, stigma coronal, and the lower end is extended into an appendage of 1-3 mm.
Schizandra growth habit and growing environment and distribution
Schisandra is mainly born in valleys, streams, and mountain slopes at an altitude of 1200-1700 meters.
Schisandra likes slightly acidic humus soil. Wild plants grow in mixed woods in mountainous areas, forest edges or shrubs in ravines, and grow on other trees. Its drought tolerance is poor. Under natural conditions, it grows best on fertile, well-drained, well-balanced soil.
Schisandra is produced in Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Inner Mongolia, Hebei, Shanxi, Ningxia, Gansu and Shandong. Born in valleys, streams and hillsides at an altitude of 1200-1700 meters. It is also distributed in North Korea and Japan. Type specimens were collected from northeast my country.
Schizandra efficacy and role
The medicinal value of Schisandra
Schisandra is a famous Chinese medicine, and its Fruit
contains Schisandra and vitamin C, resin, tannin and a small amount of sugar. It has the effects of restraining lungs and relieving cough, nourishing astringent essence, relieving diarrhea and anti-perspiration. The leaves and fruits can extract aromatic oils. Kernels contain fatty oils, which can be used as industrial raw materials and lubricants. The bark fiber is flexible and suitable for rope.
The pharmacological effects of Schisandra
1. Effect on liver damage: Schisandra alcohol extract can reduce the increase of alanine aminotransferase in laboratory animals caused by carbon tetrachloride and thioethanolamine. γ-Schisandrin (Schisandrin B) has anti-liver damage effects.
2. The effect on the central nervous system: Schisandrin has a wide range of central inhibitory effects and has the characteristics of stability. Schisandra alcohol extract 5-10mg/kg gavage can reduce the spontaneous activity of mice, cooperate with the sleep effect of pentobarbital sodium, fight against the excitement of mice caused by amphetamine, and fight against convulsions caused by caffeine and nicotine. . Schisandrin 10~100mg/kg intraperitoneal injection will reduce the spontaneous activity of mice with increasing dose. 10mg/kg intraperitoneal injection will combat the excitement of mice caused by caffeine and amphetamine; 60~120mg/kg intraperitoneal injection will significantly prolong mouse barbie Sleep time in mice caused by sodium glutamate and sodium pentobarbital; fight against convulsions caused by electric shock and pentylenetetrazole. Schisandrin has a wide range of central inhibitory effects and has the characteristics of stability.
3. Effects on the cardiovascular system: Schisandra has a heart-strengthening effect. Its water infusion and dilute alcohol infusion can strengthen myocardial contractility and increase vascular tension. The decoction in vitro experiment has an inhibitory effect on the activity of ATPase of rat myocardial cell membranes; it has a hypotensive effect on anesthetized dogs.
4. Impact on immune function: It can enhance the body's defense against non-specific stimuli.
5. Antibacterial effect: The ethanol extract has an inhibitory effect on Bacillus anthracis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus Albicans, Bacillus typhi, Vibrio cholerae, etc. in vitro.
How to reproduce Schisandra
In addition to seed propagation, wild Schisandra relies mainly on underground stalk propagation. In artificial cultivation, many people have conducted research on cutting, layering and seed propagation. As a result, although the cuttings can also take root and develop into plants, it is difficult to take root, and the requirements for treatment are difficult to grasp, and they are not as good as seed reproduction. The seed propagation method is simple and easy, and a large number of seedlings can be obtained in a short time.
How to select Schisandra seeds
Seed selection The seeds of Schisandra are best to be selected during the autumn harvest, and the ears with large and uniform fruits are selected for seeding, and they are dried and stored separately. Do not roast or stir-fry when dry. It can be dried in the sun or in the shade and stored in a ventilated and dry place.
(1) Outdoor treatment. Before freezing, the fruit of Schisandra Chinensis selected as the seed is soaked in clean water until the pulp rises and the pulp is rubbed off. There are a lot of Schisandra grains. The seed rate is about 60%, and the grains floating on the water can be removed while rubbing the pulp. After rubbing the pulp, the seeds are soaked in clean water for 5-7 days to make the seeds fully absorb water. Change the water every two days. When changing the water, you can also remove a part of the grains. After soaking, remove the dry sand and mix it with 2-3 times the seed wet sand, put it in a pit about 0.5 meters deep, covered with 10-15 cm of fine soil, and then cover with firewood or grass curtains. , Carry out low-temperature treatment. From May to June of the following year, seeds can be a rip-off.
(2) Indoor treatment In late February, move the seeds of Schisandra Chinensis into the room to remove the pulp, mix with wet sand and put them in a wooden box for sand storage. The temperature can be kept between 5℃-15℃, and the seeds can be split in the next spring.
Sowing and raising seedlings of Schisandra
1. Selection of nursery fields. The nursery field can choose fertile humus or sand.
For high-quality loam, old ginseng can also be used. The bed is a good bed for nursery, which can be made according to different soil conditions. The low-lying and rainy plots can be made into a high bed with a bed height of about 15 cm. The plots with high dryness and drought and less rain can be made into flatbeds. No matter what kind of bed must have a loose soil layer of 15 cm or more, the bed is 1.2 meters wide and the length depends on the terrain. The bed soil should be raked finely to remove impurities, and 5-10 kg of decomposed manure per square meter should be applied, and the bed soil should be fully stirred evenly, and the bed surface can be flattened to sow.
2. Sowing time and method. The seeds of the treated Schisandra are generally sown from early May to mid-June, drilled or broadcasted. The row spacing is 10 cm, and the soil is 1.5-3 cm. The sowing amount per square meter is about 30 grams. The fresh seeds of Schisandra can also be sown from early August to early September, that is, choose the same maturity, large and plump fruit, rub the pulp off, rinse with water, and sown after drying.
3. Soil management. After sowing, set up a 1-1.5-meter-high trellis, and use straw or reed curtains to shade the top. Water, when the soil is dry to keep the soil moisture at 30%-40% and wait until the Schisandra seedlings grow 2-3 pieces The shade, can be removed when the leaves are true. You’d better keep it clean, and transplant the plant in the next spring.