Jackfruit profile

Written by Maggie

Dec 25 2020

Jackfruit profile

Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam, widely known as Jackfruit, is an evergreen tree of the genera Sanko and Polomice. Tree height is 10-20m, bark dark brown; The laf leather is elliptic, spiral arranged; Flowers monoecious, fruit ripening epidermis is yellowish brown, surface with tuberculous convex and coarse hairs.

Jackfruit picture


Jackfruit morphological characteristics

Jackfruit is an evergreen tree with a height of 10-20m and a DBH of 30-50cm. Old trees often have platelike roots; Jackfruit has thick bark, dark brown; Branchlets are 2-6mm thick, longitudinally wrinkled to smooth, glabrous; Stipules are clasping cauline rings, leaving an obvious trace. 

Leaves are leathery, elliptic or obovate,, spirally arranged long 7 to 15 cm or longer, 3-7 cm wide, apex obtuse or acuminate, base cuneate, or in the young trees and germination branches leaves often divided, surface dark green, light green or hazel after dry, glabrous, shiny, the back light green, slightly rough, mesophyll cells have long arms, tissue cells have a spherical or oval resin, lateral veins pinnate, article 6-8 per side, midrib at the back significantly raised; The petiole is 1-3 cm long; Stipules are classe, ovate, 1.5 -- 8cm long, externally appressed pilose or glabrous, glabrescent. 

Jackfruit flowers are monoecious, inflorescence old stem or short branches, male inflorescence sometimes in the axils of branches or short branches, cylindrical or rod-shaped elliptic, 2-7cm long, many flowers, some flowers do not develop, total pedicels 10-50mm long; The male perianth tubular, 1 -- 1.5mm long, upper 2-lobed, puberulent, stamen 1, filaments erect in bud, anthers elliptic, no staminate pistil; Female flowers are perianth tubular, apex toothed, base trapped in succulent spheroidal axis, ovary 1-loculed.

They are elliptic to spherical or irregular in shape, 30-100cm long and 25-50cm in diameter, pale yellow when young, ripe between July and September, yellowish brown when ripe, with hard hexagon tuberculous convex bodies and coarse hairs on the surface; Drupes are elliptic, ca. 3cm long, 1.5-2cm in diameter. Jackfruit flowering period: 2-3 months. 

Jackfruit distribution

Jackfruit is probably native to the western Ghats in India.

China Guangdong, Hainan, Guangxi, Fujian, Yunnan (south) often cultivated.

It is also cultivated in Nepal, India, Sikkim, Bhutan and Malaysia. 

Jackfruit growing environment

Jackfruit enjoys a tropical climate.Suitable for areas without frost and with abundant annual rainfall. It likes light, with fast growth. When young, it slightly tolerants shade, and likes deep fertile soil, bogey water. 


Jackfruit propagation method

Seed propagation, germination propagation and high-altitude layering propagation are all available. Seed propagation is mainly used in various places, and rapid seedling breeding technology by tissue culture has made breakthroughs in India. 

Seed propagation

Main fruit ripe period of full maturity, plant diseases and insect pests of fruit developed normally, no dry bag fruit seed selection, with clean water, then tile sprouting on the sand bed, covered with sand and the sand bed 1-2 cm. Cover a layer of straw, water spray 1-2 times a day, about 1 week after the seed to take root, in succession to the seedlings grow leaf 1-2, separately to transplant. Due to the jackfruit seedling taproot particularly developed, lateral roots are very few, transplantation is not easy to survive, in order to overcome this disadvantage, it is best to cut the taproot, root in 50 mg/kg root powder solution dip in transplant, in order to promote its new lateral roots, improve the survival rate. It is best to directly pack nutrient seedling bags, plastic bags 25cm×35cm, nutrient soil by 3:7 mixed compost with cow dung and topsoil. 

Budding propagation

When Jackfruit seedlings grow more than 1cm, it could bud, and patch buds were used for bud grafting. On the excellent varieties selected annual, old and ripe branches to the sun as scions, scions to moisture storage, it is best to be picked along with grafting, in Hainan throughout the year can sprout, but in the rainy season from April to October, the tree growth season sprout survival rate is higher. At this time rootstock, scion are easy to peel, after grafting easy to survive. 

Jackfruit major value

Edible value

Modern medical research has confirmed that Jackfruit contains rich carbohydrate, protein, B group vitamins (B1, B2, B6), vitamin C, minerals, fat oil and so on. The carbohydrate, protein, fat, oil, minerals and vitamins in jackfruit play a role in maintaining the normal physiological functions of the body.

Green, immature fruits can be used as vegetables. The edible part at maturity contains 24.9 grams of carbohydrates per 100 grams, as well as calcium, phosphorus, iron, etc. 

But while Jackfruit may taste good, watch out for allergies when eating it. So it's a good idea to soak the yellow flesh in a light saline solution for a few minutes before eating Jackfruit, not only to reduce allergies but also to freshen up the fruit. Also be careful not to eat Jackfruit with honey. Jackfruit has very little water and a lot of sugar. If eaten with honey, it will react with each other to produce some gas, causing symptoms such as fullness and flatulence, and it can also cause diarrhea and death in severe cases. 

Medicinal value

After taking Jackfruit, it can strengthen the hydrolysis effect of fibrin in the body, and dissolve fibrin and blood clot in the tissues and blood vessels, so as to improve local blood and body fluid circulation, make inflammation and edema absorb and subside, and have certain auxiliary therapeutic effect on cerebral thrombosis and other diseases caused by thrombosis. 


Landscape value

Jackfruit is an excellent landscaping material with straight trunk, strong trees, dense crown and large fruit yield. In landscaping, it can be used for planting in the courtyard, planting of street trees and planting of small gardens, playing a shade and fruit viewing landscaping effect. 

The economic value

Jackfruit material is slightly hard and light, with bright yellow color, fine and beautiful texture. It is not rotting for one hundred years and termites are not near. It is a first-class furniture material, and the root can make precious wood carvings.