Written by Maggie
Jan 05 2021
Crocus sativus, a genus of the caudate family, is a perennial bulb plant.Native to the Aegean coast of Europe and Asia Minor to Central Asia. The flowers and leaves are slender and pine-like. There are about 80 species of Crocus sativus in the world. Crocus sativus is the most expensive spice in the world. It takes about fifteen thousand Crocus sativus to collect 100 grammes of pistils, because each purple Crocus sativus has only three stigmas, which must be picked by hand before sunrise to prevent the flowers from withering away and losing their harvest value.
Crocus sativus is only distributed in longitude 10 degrees west to 80 degrees East. It ranges from 30 to 50 degrees north latitude, but is mostly wild in the Balkans and Turkey, and the farther away it is from these areas, the more its distribution decreases. It is also found in the Xinjiang region of western China.
Native to the Alps, southern Europe, and the Mediterranean, cup-shaped, Crocus sativus opens in early spring or fall, widely cultivated as an ornamental. Flowering period is early in the spring, the corolla tube is very long and the ovary is buried underground and thus unaffected by climate change. The flowers close at night and on cloudy days.
Crocus sativus plant is about 1-3 m tall; Branchlets are cylindrical, sparsely stellate pilose. Leaves are broadly ovate or narrowly ovate, 4-9 cm long and 2.5 cm wide, apex acuminate, base rounded or cuneate, margin coarsely toothed or notched, glabrous on both surfaces except abaxially with a little sparsely hairs along veins; The petiole is 5-20 mm long, pilose above; Stipules are linear, 5-12 mm long, hairy.
Crocus sativus prefers cool, humid and sunny environments, also tolerates semi-shade, strong cold resistance, and can withstand -10℃ low temperature. Avoid high temperature and waterlogging, require fertile loose, good drainage of sandy loam. Crocus sativus is the bulb of both spring and autumn flowers, that is, it begins to germinate in autumn and grows rapidly to blossom in autumn, winter and spring. Crocus sativus enters the dormant stage of bulb in summer (May ~ August) and begins Flower bud differentiation, with the appropriate temperature of flower bud differentiation being 15~25℃. Flower bud differentiation before autumn planting has been completed.
Crocus sativus has strong habits, bright colors, early flowering, often a piece of plants, clumps form a beautiful color, it is best for open forest quilt, is also an excellent potted flower.
Some species act as drugs.