Sword-leaf dogbane (Apocynum venetum) profile

Written by Maggie

Feb 25 2021

Sword-leaf dogbane (Apocynum venetum) profile

Sword-leaf dogbane (scientific name: a. venetum l.) is an erect subshrub, 1.5 3 meters high, generally about 2 meters high, up to 4 meters. Sword-leaf dogbane grows in the Banks of the river, valley, slope sand texture, huaihe river and qinling mountains. North of the Kunlun mountains in China provinces (autonomous regions) have Sword - leaf dogbane distribution, has the functions, step-down, strong heart, diuresis. 

Sword-leaf dogbane picture

Sword-leaf dogbane

Morphological characteristics of Sword- Leaf Dogbane

Sword-leaf dogbane is an erect subshrub, 1.5-3 m tall, usually ca. 2 m tall, up to 4 m tall, lactic; Branches are opposite or alternate, cylindrical, smooth glabrous, purplish red or reddish.Leaves opposite, subopposite only on branches, elliptic lanceolate to ovate-oblong, 1-5 cm long, 0.5-1.5 cm wide (maximum up to 8 x 2.2 cm), apically acute to obtuse, mucronate to obtuse, base acute to obtuse, margin finely dentate, glabrous on both sides; Veins of Sword-leaf dogbane are slender, slightly convex or flattened on the back of leaves, inconspicuous on the surface, lateral veins 10-15 on each side, netted in front of leaf margin; Petiole of Sword-leaf dogbane is 3-6 mm long; Petiole is interglandular, shed when old.

Inflorescences one to most obfuscate paniculate, usually terminal, sometimes axillary, pedicels ca. 4 mm, pubescent; Bracts of Sword-leaf dogbane are membranous, lanceolate, ca. 4 mm long, ca. 1 mm wide; Bracteoles are 1 -- 5 mm long, 0.5 mm wide; Calyx of Sword-leaf dogbane is 5-lobed, lobes lanceolate or ovoid lanceolate, pubescent on both surfaces, margin membranous, ca. 1.5 mm long, ca. 0.6 mm wide; Corolla tubular is bell-shaped, purple or pink, densely granular protrusions on both sides. Corolla tube of Sword-leaf dogbane is 6-8 mm long, 2 to 3 mm in diameter, base of corolla lobes coverage to the right, lobes eggs cone oblong, rare wide triangular, apex obtuse or rounded, and corolla tube almost isometric, 3-4 mm long, 1.5 2.5 mm wide, every lobes inside and outside are three obvious purple veins; Stamens are bearing at base of corolla tube, alternate with corolla lobes, 2-3 mm long; Anthers of Sword-leaf dogbane are arrowhead shaped, apical acuminate, concealed in throat, dorsal hump, abdomen adherent to base of stigma, base of ear, ear usually parallel, sometimes close or converged, filaments short, densely covered with white vermilion; Pistil of Sword-leaf dogbane is 2-2.5 mm long, style short, distally enlarged, lower part diminished, stigma discoid at base, tip obtuse, 2-lobed; The ovary is composed of 2 detached carpels, which are covered with white velutinous hair. Each carpel of Sword-leaf dogbane has a large number of ovules, which are born on the placenta of the lateral membrane of the abdominal suture line of the ovary. Disk annular, fleshy, apex irregularly 5-lobed, base connate, surrounding ovary, attached to receptacle.

Sword-leaf dogbane has 2 follicles, parallel or forked, pendulous, opticulate cylindrical, 8-20 cm long, 2-3 mm in diameter, apex acuminate, base obtuse, exocarp brown, glabrous, with paper lines; Seed of Sword-leaf dogbane is ovoid oblong, yellowish brown, 2-3 mm long, 0.5-0.7 mm in diameter, the top has a tuft of white silky seed hair;Seed hairs 1.5-2.5 cm long; Cotyledon is oblong, subequal to radicle, ca. 1.3 mm long: radicle above. 

Sword- Leaf Dogbane's ecological habits

Sand texture growing on river banks, mountain gullies and hillsides. Sword-leaf dogbane distributes in Liaoning, Jilin, Inner Mongolia, Gansu, Xinjiang, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Shandong, Henan, Hebei, Jiangsu and northern Anhui and other places. Sword-leaf dogbane is widely distributed in temperate regions of Europe and Asia. Mainly wild in saline-alkali wasteland and desert edge and both sides of rivers, alluvial plain, around the river and the desert desert. It has been introduced, cultivated and domesticated.

Sword-leaf dogbane

Sword- Leaf Dogbane propagation 

Choose the following 3 propagation methods according to local conditions:

Sowing propagation

Selected land preparation: the soil requirements of Sword-leaf dogbane are not strict, but should be higher terrain, good drainage, soil loose, breathable sandy loam is appropriate. Low - lying, prone to waterlogging and drought - prone clay and limestone plots are not suitable for planting. Before land preparation, apply sufficient bottom fertilizer, every mu of cooked barnyard manure 1000 ~ 2000kg, comprehensive deep tillage, deep 30 ~ 40cm, rake fine, leveling, made into bed, according to 8m×1.2m for the bed, bed height 8 ~ 18cm, 30 ~ 40cm wide, between the two beds to leave the work road 40cm or so, and between the two beds in addition to the separation belt, to prevent and reduce soil erosion.

Because the seeds of Sword-leaf dogbane are small, direct sowing is not easy to seedlings, and should be processed first. Treatment method: put the seeds of Sword-leaf dogbane into cloth bags, soaked with water for 24 hours, during the water change 1 ~ 2 times, then take out and spread out, thickness 1 ~ 2cm, placed Sword-leaf dogbane in a place of 15℃, covered with wet cover (such as sacks, cloth bags, etc.), when there are 50% of the seeds exposed white can be planted.When sowing, the seeds are mixed with 1:10 clean sand, ditches are drilled on the bed, row spacing is 30cm, ditch depth is 0.5 ~ 1cm, the seeds are evenly scattered into the ditch, then covered with soil 0.5cm, a little after watering, and then covered with straw curtain or other moisture. To unearthed seedlings in the evening or cloudy weather removed cover, cultivation for 1 years can be transplanted.

Rootstock propagation

The rhizome of Sword-leaf dogbane of more than 2 years old was selected and cut into small sections of 10-15cm long. The holes were opened according to the plant spacing of 30cm and row spacing of 25cm. 

Division propagation

After the Sword-leaf dogbane has withered or before sprouts in the spring, remove the roots and stems from the bushes and transplant them.

Main value of Sword- Leaf Dogbane

Medicinal value

Sword- Leaf Dogbane calms the liver and calms the mind, clears heat and benefits water. For vertigo of liver Yang, palpitation, insomnia, edema and less urine; Hypertension, neurasthenia, nephritis and edema.

Clinical application of Sword- Leaf Dogbane

Sword- Leaf Dogbane can treat hypertension, treat heart failure, edema, prevent and cure colds.

Sword-leaf dogbane