Shiso is an annual herb. Its stem is 0.3-2 meters high, green or purple, blunt quadrangular, with four grooves, densely pilose. The leaves are broadly ovate or round, 7-13 cm long, 4.5-10 cm wide, short or protruding apex, 7-8 pairs of lateral veins, the lower part is slightly closer, rising obliquely; petiole is 3-5 cm long, The back and abdomen of shiso are flat, densely pilose. Cymbidium has 2 flowers, composed of a terminal and an axillary raceme of 1.5-15 cm long, densely pilose, leaning to one side; bracts wide ovoid or sub-ground, about 4 mm long and wide, with apex Short pointed, covered with reddish-brown glands, glabrous, membranous margin; pedicel 1.5 mm long, densely pilose. The calyx is bell-shaped, 10-veined, about 3 mm long, straight, and the lower part is pubescent, with yellow gland points sandwiched. Style apex is equal to 2 lobed. The front of the faceplate is enlarged with fingers. Nutlets are nearly spherical, gray-brown, about 1.5 mm in diameter, with reticulated patterns. The flowering period of shiso is from August to November, and the fruiting period is from August to December.
Shiso can be used for medicine and perfume. The main part of the medicine is stems, leaves, and seeds. The leaves are sweating, antitussive, aromatic gastric diuretic, which has analgesic, sedative, detoxifying effects, and treats colds; its infarction has the effect of calming qi and fetus; Zi Neng Antitussive, expectorant, anti-asthmatic, and disperse the dullness of spirit. The leaves are eaten again, and cooked with meat can increase the flavor of the latter. The oil squeezed from the seeds, called Suzi oil, is used for food and has an antiseptic effect for industrial use.
Shiso morphological characteristics
Shiso is an annual erect herb. The stem is 0.3-2 meters high, green or purple, obtusely quadrangular, with four grooves, densely pilose. The leaves are broadly ovoid or round, 7-13 cm long, 4.5-10 cm wide, apex short or protruding, base round or broadly cuneate, with thick serrations above the base, membranous or grassy, green on both sides Or purple, or only purple on the bottom, sparsely pilose on the top, pilose on the bottom, 7-8 pairs of lateral veins, the lower part is slightly closer, rising diagonally, and the midrib is protruding below the upper microprotrusion, slightly lighter in color; Petiole is 3-5 cm long, flat dorsal and abdomen, densely pilose.
Cymbidium shiso has 2 flowers, composed of a terminal and an axillary raceme of 1.5-15 cm long, densely pilose, leaning to one side; bracts are broad ovoid or nearly round, about 4 mm long and wide, Apex shortly pointed, covered with reddish-brown glands, glabrous, membranous margin. Pedicel of shiso is 1.5 mm long, densely pilose. The calyx is bell-shaped, about 3 mm long, straight, and the lower part is pubescent, with yellow gland points sandwiched. Corolla white to purplish red, 3-4 mm long, slightly pilose on the outside, slightly pilose on the inside at the base of the lower lip, short crown tube, 2-2.5 mm long, obliquely bell-shaped throat, nearly two crown eaves Lip shape, upper lip slightly missing, lower lip with 3 clefts, middle lobes are larger, and side lobes are similar to the upper lip.
Shiso growth habit and growing environment and distribution
Shiso has a well-developed root system. The main root is 30 cm deep into the soil, but most of the root system is distributed in the soil layer of 2-18 cm, and the root system is 40-50 cm wide. The flowering period of the branch and the main stem inflorescence is the same. In the same inflorescence, the flowers in the upper 1/3 part usually bloom first, and the whole sequence blooms after 2-3 days. It takes about 20 days from budding to flowering, from opening to withering about 12 days.
In northern Zhejiang, China, planting is generally done in early April, full seedlings in mid-April, transplanting in mid-May, budding in late August, flowering, and fruiting in mid-September, and mature seeds in mid-October. The full growth period is about 190 days.
Shiso has a strong adaptability and does not require strict soil requirements. It can grow well on sandy loam, loam, and clay with good drainage, and the suitable soil pH is 6.0-6.5. It is more resistant to high temperature, the suitable temperature for growth is 25℃, but high temperature accompanied by drought has a greater impact on plant growth. The optimum temperature for the flowering period of Shiso is 21.3-23.4℃.
Shiso is distributed in China, Bhutan, India, Indochina, Indonesia (Java), Japan, and North Korea, widely cultivated throughout China.
Shiso efficacy and role
Shiso can be used for medicine and spices. The main part of the medicine is stems, leaves, and seeds. The leaves of shiso are sweating, antitussive, aromatic gastric diuretic, which has analgesic, sedative, and detoxifying effects, and cures colds. It is effective for people with abdominal pain and vomiting due to fish and crab poisoning; shiso has the power of calming down the fetus; the child can relieve cough, expectorant, relieve asthma, and relieve the dull spirit. The leaves are eaten again, and cooked with meat can increase the aroma of the latter. The oil squeezed from the seeds, called Suzi oil, is used for food and has an antiseptic effect for industrial use.
Every 100 grams of tender stems and leaves contain 23 mg of iron, 3.0 mg of calcium, 44 mg of phosphorus, 9.09 mg of carotene, 10.02 mg of vitamin B, 20.35 mg of vitamin B, 47 mg of vitamin C, and 1.3 mg of niacin. The protein content of seeds is 25%, and the seeds contain a variety of amino acids.
In general, shiso uses mature seeds for propagation. Generally, seedlings are grown and transplanted when the amount of seeds is small, the weather is dry or the temperature is low. When raising seedlings, you should choose a sunny, warm, and good soil plot as a border, apply foot fertilizer, irrigate once permeable, sow in the border between the borders after the water seeps down and the seedbed temperature rises, and then cover with soil. During this period, the humidity of the seedbed should be maintained. If the low temperature is encountered at this time, the rows of thinning seedlings can be covered well, and weak seedlings that are too small and too dense can be removed. When the shiso seedlings reach about 5 cm in height, you'd better choose cloudy days or in the afternoon for transplanting, and water 1-2 times permeable after planting to ensure the survival rate of transplanting.