Written by Maggie
Oct 28 2021
Pot marigold, scientific name Calendula officinalis, belongs to the genus Pot marigold in Compositae. Pot marigold is an annual or more annual herb, happy illumination, not strict to soil requirement, can be in dry, loose and fertile in alkaline soil good growth, endure barren, often used at flowerbed place. Pot marigold was used in ancient Western medicine or as a dye, but also as a cosmetic or food. The leaves and petals were edible and used as a decoration for dishes. Pot marigold is native to southern Europe. It has medicinal value of anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial and heat-clearing decrease internal heat to treat acne and acne.
Pot marigold is a biennial herb with a height of 30 ~ 60cm. The whole plant is covered with white fuzz. Leaves alternate, elliptic or elliptic obovate, entire, basal leaves petiolate, upper leaves base embrace stem.
Pot marigold capitulate is solitary stem apex, large, 4 -- 6cm, with one or more spreading ligulate flowers, golden or orange, tubular flowers, yellow or brown. There are also double petals (in fact, multi-layer tongue shaped flowers), rolling petals and green heart, deep purple Flower heart and other cultivars.
The flowering period of Pot marigold is from March to December. Achene, ship - shaped, claw - shaped, Fruit ripening period from May to July.
Pot Marigold likes sunny environments, strong adaptability, can withstand -9℃ low temperature, and is afraid of hot weather. Do not choose soil, with loose, fertile, slightly acidic soil is best, can sow from, grow fast, more cold, do not choose soil.
Pot marigold tolerates barren dry soil and cool environment. It grows well in sunny and fertile areas.
Pot marigold is native to southern Europe and the Mediterranean coast, and is cultivated in many parts of China. It is distributed in Guangdong, Guangxi, Fujian, Sichuan, Yunnan and Guizhou provinces.
Pot marigold mainly propagates by sowing propagation, also can be cuttings propagation, often autumn sowing or early spring shed (or sun beds) sowing propagation. In southern China, planting can be done several times a year, but mainly in autumn. Pot marigold has strong adaptability and can overwinter on the open ground. Summer sowing should pay attention to shade and heat prevention. In the north of China, spring sowing is mostly carried out in April and May. Flowers bloom in early summer, which can be safely passed over in cool places. Flowers bloom again between September and October. It can also be autumn sowing, sowing seedlings in late September to 10 early moved into the cold bed for winter, the second spring moved to outdoor cultivation or potted culture, frost when moved into the low temperature greenhouse to facilitate, maintain 10℃, winter flowers.
Seedling long 3-4 pieces of true leaves when transplanting 1 time, the use of wide and narrow row planting, big row 70 cm, small row 50 cm, plant spacing of 25 cm, each mu of seedlings to stay 4500 plants, according to the big and small seedling branch planting. Mulch is used to increase ground temperature and promote early flower ripening. After transplanting to flood irrigation, promote early slow seedling, early root. When seedlings are 5-6 true leaves, plant them in 10-12 cm pots, or apply them to landscape according to their use. In addition, it can also be transplanted directly to the basin after the seedling refining period. Pot marigold is generally used in a 12-13 cm diameter nutrition bowl, and the Pot is placed in place at one time without changing pots. If the seedlings are raised by broadcast seeding, it is best to transplant the seedlings once with 128 or 288 holes at 1-2 pairs of true leaves, and then put them into the pot.
Cultivation soil: after transplanting to shallow hoe to protect the pick, when seedling height 25-30 cm, a small amount of branching, from ridges and furrows take soil to cultivate at the base of the plant, in order to promote adventitious roots, prevent falling, at the same time inhibit the growth of the weeds below the film.
Watering: after soil cultivation according to soil moisture moisture for watering, each watering amount should not be too large, do not spread ridge, keep the soil between the dry wet.
Extra-root forcing fertilizer: Extra-root forcing fertilizer should be carried out when the flowers are in full bloom. Spraying time should be after 6 PM. It is advisable to spray 0.03kg urea and 0.03kg potassium dihydrogen phosphate per mu, or alternately apply 20-10-20 or 14-0-14 soluble flower fertilizer, every 7-10 days, and the concentration should be 200× 10-250 ×10.
The common pests and diseases of Pot Marigold include Pot Marigold virus disease, Pot Marigold aphid, Pot Marigold aphid, Lepidoptera homunculata, Caulis chinensis and so on.
It is not easy to get close to the growing point of the plant. Therefore, virus-free plants can be obtained through stem tip tissue culture for cultivation.
Spray insecticides in the growing period to prevent and control the poisonous insect thrips. Reagents can be used 40% seven star treasure emulsion 800 times liquid or 50% kill boo pine 1000 times liquid, also can spray 75% octyl sulfide phosphorus 1500 times liquid, or 2.5% deltamethrin 4000 times liquid.
When planting, keep away from the Garden of roses such as plum and plum to reduce the source of overwintering insects.
Protection and utilization of natural enemies such as ladybugs, lacewings and syphilis.
Rinse the branches and buds with water before the germination of flowers and trees in early spring, and wash away the overwintering eggs and newly hatched nymphs. Clear the surrounding weeds.
At the beginning of chemical control on Pot marigold, choose to spray 2000 times of fenothrin solution, 1000 times of fenothrin solution or 50% of fenothrin emulsion.Spray once every 10-15 days.
Winter plowing and weeding to eliminate overwintering pupae.
In the emergence stage of adulthood, black light can be used to trap and kill them according to their phototaxis. Remove the leaves with eggs in time.
Chemical control of larval incubation, spray 20% fenothrin 2000 times solution, or trichlorfon 1000 times solution.
According to the phototaxis of adults, black light can be used to trap and kill.
Artificial capture can be used when a small number of larvae occur; We can also use 800~1000 times the liquid 50% kill borer pine pest eradication.
When chemical control larvae are in full development, choose to spray BT emulsion 200-500 times solution, or trichlorfon, 1000 times solution.
Pot marigold can be used in many ways. Almost all parts of the plant can be used. The main parts of the Pot marigold are flowers and leaves.
Flower is the most important economic organ available to Pot Marigold, which is mainly used in cosmetics, medicine, etc. Flowers are also used to decorate and prepare salads, and to give soups, breads, and vinegar their golden color and distinctive flavor.
Pot marigold active substances mainly found in the middle part of the flower, main chemical components including: department of triterpenoid saponins (saponins ligands: oleonolic acid), carotenoid (precursor of vitamin A), bitter glycoside, yellow resin, trace amounts of volatile oil, sterol, flavonoids (flav onoids), mucus, carotenoid pigment, and red pigments etc.
1. It has anti-infection ability and bactericidal properties, and has obvious effects on damaged tissues such as burns, skin skin cracks, chilblains, etc.
2. Modern medicine has proved that Pot Marigold can resist fungal, protozoa, bacteria and viral infection. Antifungal activity has been demonstrated in vitro with 10% methanol extract and 70% ethanol tincture, which has high antiviral activity against viruses such as influenza and inhibates the growth of herpes simplex virus.
3, Pot marigold is a very effective herbs, used in the treatment of various skin diseases, physical damage such as leg ulcers, hemorrhoids, varicose veins, anal fissure, mastitis, adipose cyst, impetigo, and other skin inflammation, can specifically for the treatment of lymph node inflammation, trauma, also used in all kinds of bruises, sprains, very slow in some healing wounds, skin ulcer, particularly effective, for minor burns, burns is also a kind of very good performances.
4. Pot marigold can promote blood clotting and reduce capillary exudates.
5. Pot Marigold's distilled water is used as an eye lotion to treat conjunctivitis. Other topical uses include lotions, poultices and compresses.
6. Pot Marigold ointment is an excellent cosmetic component that is effective in repairing minor skin lesions such as subdermal capillary wounds or sunburn.
7. Extract of Pot Marigold, like saffron, is used as a folk remedy for smallpox and measles.
8. Internal administration of Pot Marigold is beneficial for digestive tract inflammation, such as gastritis and duodenal ulcers, especially for visceral bleeding (such as black faecal disease).
9. Pot marigold essential oil can be extracted from flowers by steam distillation, along with saponin, Pot marigold (a carotene), malic acid, ascorbic acid and viscose.
Flowers can also be extracted by boiling water to get yellow dye, used in the textile industry.