Pomelo is a plant of the Rutaceae, citrus genus, and a tree. The tender branches, leaf backs, pedicels, calyx, and ovary of the pomelo are all pilose, the tender leaves are usually dark purple-red, and the tender branches are flat and ribbed. The leaves are thick, dark green in color, broadly oval or elliptical, and the Lianji leaves are 9-16 cm long and 4-8 cm wide. Racemes, sometimes with single axillary flowers; flower buds are light purple-red, sparsely milky white; the calyx is irregularly 5-3 lobed. The petals of pomelo are 1.5-2 cm long; there are 25-35 stamens, and sometimes some stamens are sterile. The fruit is round, oblate, pear-shaped or broad-cone-shaped, with thick or thin skin, spongy, large oil cells, convex, solid but softcore, sacs 10-15 or as many as 19 petals; many seeds There are more than 200 grains, there are also seedless, irregular shapes, usually approximately rectangular, single embryo. The flowering period of pomelo is from April to May, and the fruit period is from September to December.
Pomelo is native to Southeast Asia and has been cultivated in China for more than 3000 years. It is planted in Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Guangdong, Guangxi, Taiwan, Fujian, Hunan, Hubei, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan and other provinces. Pomelo likes a warm and humid climate and is intolerant of drought. The optimum temperature during the growth period of pomelo is 23-29℃, and it can tolerate the low temperature of -7℃.
The skin, flowers, and leaves of the pomelo can also be extracted with high-quality aromatic oil, and high-quality pectin can be extracted from the peel, and the pulp can be processed into juice, wine, citric acid, jam and canned food. The economic benefits of pomelo fruit are expected to increase 4 times after comprehensive utilization, and the comprehensive utilization of pomelo still has great potential for exploitation. The pulp contains higher vitamin C. It has the effects of digestion and antidrinking.
Pomelo morphological characteristics
The racemes of pomelo sometimes have single axillary flowers. The flower buds of pomelo are light purple-red and milky white; the calyx is irregularly 5-3 lobed; the petals are 1.5-2 cm long; the stamens are 25-35, and some of the stamens are sometimes sterile; the styles of pomelo are thick and long, and the stigma is slightly larger than the ovary. The fruit is round, oblate, pear-shaped or broad-cone-shaped, with a transverse diameter of more than 10 cm, light yellow or yellow-green, hybrids have vermilion, thick or thin skin, spongy, large oil cells, and convex, The fruit core is solid but soft, the sac is 10-15 or as many as 19 petals, the juice sacs are white, pink or bright red, and rarely creamy. There are more than 200 seeds of pomelo, and some are seedless. They are irregular in shape. They are usually almost rectangular. The upper part is thin and often truncated, and the lower part is full. Most of them are underdeveloped, with obvious longitudinal ribs and milky white cotyledons. Single embryo.
Pomelo growth habit and growing environment and distribution
Pomelo likes a warm, humid climate and is intolerant of drought. The optimum temperature during the growth period of pomelo is 23-29℃, and it can tolerate the low temperature of -7℃. As long as the high temperature in summer maintains good fertilizer and water conditions, it is not harmful. Pomelo requires a large amount of water, but it is not durable for waterlogging. Zhejiang Province has a mid-subtropical monsoon climate, especially on the southeast coast, there is no severe summer and no severe cold in winter. The annual average temperature is 16-17.8℃, the annual precipitation is more than 1,300 mm, the annual average humidity is 80%, and the frost-free period is as long as 322 days. Cultivation and growth of pomelo. Pomelo is deep-rooted, requires a deep soil layer, and is not strict with soil. It can grow in soil rich in organic matter and pH 5.5-7.5.
Pomelo is native to Southeast Asia and has been cultivated in China for more than 3000 years. It is planted in Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Guangdong, Guangxi, Taiwan, Fujian, Hunan, Hubei, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan and other provinces. All parts of China south of the Yangtze River, the northernmost area is found in Xinyang and Nanyang, Henan Province, all cultivated. There are plants in Southeast Asian countries.
Pomelo efficacy and role
The economic value of pomelo
The leaves, flowers and peel of pomelo all contain aromatic oils roughly the same as those of citron and lemons. The aromatic oils of pomelo flowers are mainly nerol, methyl anthranilate and decanal. Pomelo peel still contains bitter flavonoid glycosides, with more naringin content, followed by poncirin and neohesperidin, and rhoifolin and synephrine and alkaloids: levorotatory and racemic stachydrine, Puterescine and N-methyl tyramine, etc. The seeds contain 39% oil, with oleic acid accounting for the majority, accounting for about 55%, followed by palmitic acid, stearic acid, linoleic acid and linoleic acid. High-quality pectin can be extracted from the peel of pomelo, and the pulp can be processed into juice, wine, citric acid, jam and canned food. After the comprehensive utilization of fruits, the economic benefits are expected to increase by 4 times, and the comprehensive utilization of pomelo still has great potential for exploitation.
The nutritional value of pomelo
The pomelo is as big as a pot, sweet and juicy. The weight of a single fruit is generally 1.25-2 kg, and the maximum can reach 3.5 kg; the peel is orange-yellow and fragrant. The pulp of pomelo is tender and juicy. The edible part of the fruit is 45-65%, the amount of fruit juice is 53%, the total sugar content in the pulp is 7.4-12%, the acid content is 1.1-1.4%, and the soluble solid content is 10-12.5%, per 100 grams. The edible part contains 34.8-45 mg of vitamin C and contains vitamin B1, B2, β-carotene, other vitamins and various minerals. Because pomelo has high sugar content, moderately sweet and sour, rich nutrition, and durable storage, it is called natural canned food. The pulp of pomelo contains high vitamin C. Pomelo has the effects of digestion and anti-alcohol.
Grafting is often used for pomelo. The rootstock used is the seedlings of Tuluan (sour grapefruit) or Gaocheng (Jade orange). Luluan is a local wild species in Zhejiang. It has strong grafting affinity, strong growth, salt-tolerant, long life span, and is especially suitable for cultivation in tidal flats. Gaocheng is a unique rootstock for raising seedlings of Yuhuan pomelo, and its grafted seedlings grow well. The nursery generally chooses the deep soil layer of the hilly gentle slope. Tideland seedlings can be planted with landslide 50 tons/mu or fertile topsoil with a salt content of less than 1%. At the same time, combined with extra-root topdressing ferrous sulfate to overcome the iron-deficiency yellowing problem of seabed seedlings. Grafting is usually carried out in spring, and conventional cutting methods can be used. After the grafted pomelo seedlings
survive, they need to be cultivated until the next spring (March) or autumn (October) to leave the nursery. The young roots of pomelo should not be exposed when they leave the nursery, they must be covered with mud and wrapped with straw.