Jicama is a legume family, Jicama is a herbaceous twining vine. Its roots are massive, fusiform, or oblate, fleshy. Pinnate compound leaves; stipules linear-lanceolate, leaflets rhomboid or ovate, lobes small, acutely pointed, racemes, bracteoles bristly, early fall. The corolla of Jicama is light purple or light red, the flag petals are nearly round, the wings are sickle-shaped, the style is curved, the pods are band-shaped, flat, and the seeds are nearly square and flat. Jicama generally blooms in August and bears fruit in November.
Jicama was originally distributed in tropical America. It is distributed in Taiwan, Fujian, Guangdong, Hainan, Guangxi, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, and cultivated in Hunan and Hubei. Jicama likes a warm, sunny environment, with strong resistance to drought, waterlogging, and barrenness. It does not have strict requirements on the soil. It is suitable for sandy loam with deep topsoil, high dryness and moderate fertility.
The roots of Jicama can be eaten raw or cooked; the seeds contain rotenone, which can be used as an insecticide, which is effective in controlling aphids.
Jicama morphological characteristics
Jicama is a grassy vine with a coat, sometimes slightly woody at the base. Its root is massive, fusiform, or oblate, generally about 20-30 cm in diameter, and fleshy.
Pinnate compound leaves with 3 leaflets; stipules linear-lanceolate, 5-11 mm long; small stipules cone-shaped, about 4 mm long; leaflets rhomboid or ovoid, 4-18 cm long, 4-20 cm wide, Irregularly lobed above the middle, lobes small, acutely pointed, very unequal on both sides of the lateral leaflets, only slightly hairy underneath.
The raceme of Jicama is 15-30 cm long, with 3-5 flowers per node; bracteoles are bristly, early-falling; the calyx is 9-11 mm long, with closely attached long bristles. The corolla of Jicama is light purple or light red, the flag petal is nearly round, 15-20 mm long, there are a yellow-green patch and 2 callus-like appendages near the base of the center, and 2 semicircular, upright appendages above the petal Ears, wing petals are sickle-shaped, base with linear, downward long ears, keel petals are nearly sickle-shaped, 1.5-2 cm long; stamens are two bodies, 1 free from the flag petal. The ovary of Jicama is light yellow with long bristles, the style is curved, and the stigma is located on the ventral surface below the top.
Jicama growth habit and growing environment and distribution
Jicama likes a warm, sunny environment, sex likes high temperature, not cold. The optimum temperature for growth is 20-30℃, and the optimum temperature for fleshy root expansion is 20-25℃. High temperature is required for flowering and seeding. Jicama seeds need 7-8 months to mature. The root system is well-developed, it has the characteristics of strong stress resistance, drought tolerance, waterlogging tolerance, and barren tolerance. The soil requirements are not strict. The sandy loam with deep topsoil, high dryness, and moderate fertility is suitable. Clay has stunted root growth, rough skin and many fibers. The root tuber growth of Jicama requires proper nitrogen fertilizer and more phosphorus and potassium fertilizer. Too much nitrogen fertilizer often causes vine leaves to grow, and fleshy roots are not easy to hypertrophy.
Jicama is native to tropical America and is grown in many tropical regions. It is cultivated in Taiwan, Fujian, Guangdong, Hainan, Guangxi, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Hunan and Hubei.
Jicama efficacy and role
Jicama seeds contain rotenone, which can be used as an insecticide and is effective in controlling aphids.
The part eaten by Jicama is a fat tuber. Its skin is thin and tough, the flesh is white, tender, crisp, sweet and juicy, without residue, and has a slightly beany taste. After raw or cooked food, Jicama can quench thirst, cool down and relieve heat Toxin, lowering blood pressure and other effects.
Jicama seeds are hard, and dry seeds germinate slowly and unevenly. In production, germination is often used. Seeds should be selected before germination, and mature, full and fresh seeds should be selected. When accelerating the germination of Jicama, soak the seeds for 10-12 hours. After swelling by absorbing water, place them in an incubator at 25-28℃ for accelerating germination. Take out and rinse once a day. After 4-5 days, select the germinated Jicama seeds for sowing, 2-3 times Finished.
As Jicama grows long, try to broadcast it as early as possible. Jicama generally uses live broadcast, sowing methods can be divided into climbing cultivation and scaffolding cultivation. Climbing cultivation generally has a row spacing of 50 cm, plant spacing of 33 cm, and 1-2 Jicama seeds per hole. 3000 Jicama can be planted per acre, with a seed amount of about 2 kg; stent cultivation uses deep furrows and high borders, and border heights of 20-25 cm, Ditch width 50 cm, border surface 90 cm, 2 rows per border, row spacing 50 cm, plant spacing 33 cm, 3-4 Jicama seeds per hole, 2.5-3 kg per mu, cover after sowing Soil 2-3 cm, seedlings can emerge 15 days after sowing.