Pistachio trees are small deciduous trees. The height of the tree is about 10 meters, with odd-numbered pinnate compound leaves, and it has long age and slow growth. The seedlings need at least six years to bear fruit from the first year of seed planting. The fruiting rate increases year by year. The fruit is larger, oblong and long. It is about 2 cm wide and about 1 cm wide, and turns yellow-green or pink when cooked. It is native to Syria, Iraq, Iran, the southwest of the former Soviet Union and southern Europe, and then spread to remote areas of China.
Pistachio Tree Morphological Characteristics
The pistachio tree
is about 10 meters high, with odd-numbered pinnately compound leaves, and 3 to 5 small leaves. The leaflets are oval or broad-elliptic, 4-10 cm long and 2.5-6.5 cm wide. The panicle is 4-10 cm long. It is dioecious, and male flowers have 3 to 5 tepals, varying in size. Female has 3 to 5 flower tepals, and it is membranous. The ovary is ovoid, the fruit is larger, oblong, about 2 cm long and 1 cm wide. The apex is sharp, yellowish green or pink when cooked.
The flowers of the pistachio tree
are dioecious, the panicle is 4-10cm long, the rachis and branches of the inflorescence are pilose, striated, and the male inflorescence is broad and dense, and the male perianth is 3-5, oblong, varying in size. Pistachio tree have
5 -6 stamens , 3-5 female perianth. It is oblong and membranous, with curled eyelashes at the edge. Its ovary is sessile and oblong, about 1mm long. The style length of Pistachio tree
is about 0.5mm.
The drupe is oval or oblong, the stalk is about 3cm long, and the fruit is larger, about 2cm long and 1cm wide, with sharp apex and thin tip. When it is yellow-green, you can pink when mature.
Pistachio Tree Growth Habit & Growing EnvironmentSince pistachio trees are not native seedlings in China, they are only introduced to my country in remote areas. pistachio trees are commonly planted in Syria and other countries.The world is mainly distributed in countries along the Mediterranean coast, and Pistachio is also cultivated in Xinjiang. It is native to Iran and distributed in Italy, France, Greece, Turkey, Syria, Afghanistan, Iraq and other countries. There are also certain Pistachio planting areas in the southwestern United States and California. Russia and Xinjiang in mainland China have also been widely cultivated.
Pistachio trees are light-loving and grow on sunny slopes at an altitude of 600 meters to 1200 meters. Deep calcareous soil and well-drained loose sandy loam grow well. Plants are not tolerant of moisture and are afraid of standing water.
1. Requirements and Adaptation to SoilPistachio trees
are highly adaptable to the soil and can grow on almost all types of soil, especially deep, thick, light, or dry calcareous sandy loam, yellow loam, in clay loam, sandy soil, shallow maroon soil, light loam, lightly saline soil, etc. Soil pH is 7.7-8.0. Pistachio can also grow and bear fruit on gravelly barren mountains and semi-desert land. Growth requires trace elements such as potassium and iron. Pistachio trees are not tolerant to salt and alkali and cannot grow in places that are too humid and stagnant.
2. Requirements and Adaptation to Moisture
Pistachio tree suitable for planting areas generally have an annual rainfall in the range of 200-400 mm, which grows well and produces full results. And in areas with an annual rainfall of less than 80 mm, they can also grow stubbornly, bloom and bear fruit, but lack water in the sensitive period of water demand in summer will cause no harvest of fruit particles. Iran's best pistachio orchard is located on a plateau at 4000 feet above sea level. It is considered the worst desert in the world. The average annual rainfall is 10-15 inches, less than 5 feet in the southern and eastern regions, and the summer temperature in the northern plateau is as high as 100 degrees Fahrenheit. The annual sunshine is 2500-3000 hours is better, the air humidity is not high, and the surface water level is preferably below 3 meters.
3. Requirements and Adaptation to Heat
Pistachio trees are drought-tolerant, light-loving, intolerant of shade, afraid of humidity, and summer floods. They are extremely resistant to drought. The main root is 7-8 meters deep into the soil. The horizontal roots are well developed and can extend beyond 10 meters. It is the world's most drought-resistant fruit tree and water and soil.
Pistachio has a strong ability to adapt to temperature, and can withstand the high temperature of 42 degrees Celsius and the low temperature limit of -26 degrees Celsius in Shufu County, Xinjiang. In Sicily, the temperature is 73.4 degrees Fahrenheit, the average temperature is 46 degrees Fahrenheit, and the low temperature of 26.6 degrees Fahrenheit does not harm the tree. In the United States, Arizona can tolerate a low temperature of 6 degrees Fahrenheit, while in Iran from 15 degrees Fahrenheit to 108 degrees Fahrenheit, in the former Soviet Union Some areas can tolerate sub-Fahrenheit temperature. Iran's Kerman is the most suitable place to grow pistachios. The average January temperature variance in 7 years is 4.4°F and the average temperature is 44.9°F. Pistachio trees need a cold enough winter to break the dormancy of buds and Long, hot, dry summer to ripen the fruit. The fruit-bearing period requires a large temperature difference between day and night. The temperature in the region is within the range of 43.8 degrees Celsius and minus 32.8 degrees Celsius, and the fruits grow well.
Pistachio Efficacy and Role
Dr. Li Zhaoping, University of California, Los Angeles School of Medicine, said that pistachios are rich in fiber, vitamins, minerals and antioxidant elements. They are low-fat, low-calorie and high-fiber. Pistachios are a wise choice for health. Brings three effects:
Rich in arginine, it not only relieves the occurrence of arteriosclerosis, helps lower blood lipids, but Pistachio also reduces the risk of heart attack, lowers cholesterol, and relieves acute stress reactions.
The purple-red pistachio fruit coat contains anthocyanin, which is a natural antioxidant, while the emerald green kernel is rich in lutein, which is not only antioxidant, but Pistachio is also very effective in protecting the retina. There are benefits.
Make the Body Slim
Eating 28 grams of pistachios every day, about 49, not only does not have to worry about getting fat, but also helps control weight. This is because the feeling of fullness usually takes 20 minutes. Eating pistachios can extend the eating time by peeling the shell, making people feel full and satisfied, thereby helping to reduce food intake and control weight. (Read More: Health Benefits of Pistachios
Pistachio Tree Cultivation
Pistachio plant is a dioecious plant, cone inflorescence, pollinated by wind media, and generally pollen can spread 50 to 70 meters. Flowering period of the same plant is 6-15 days. The Pistachio tree body is a small tree or arbor with a life span of more than one hundred years. The crown opening and branching are weak, and the branches of Pistachio develop and bear fruit. The flower buds are born on the annual branch and bear fruit at 1 to 3 nodes below the top bud.
The young Pistachio trees enter the fruiting age later. If the pistachio seedlings
are planted, it takes 7 to 8 years to start fruit, the root tillers of the ramets are about 5 years, and the grafted trees are 3 to 4 years. Generally, the plant produces about 15 kg of nuts. Early-maturing varieties mature in about 110 days for fruit growth, and late-maturing varieties need 130 days to mature in late August. The pistachio flower and fruit are heavy, and the fruit setting rate is generally 20% to 30%, and there are large and small years. However, when the garden is built, the pollination tree is configured, the Pistachio flowering period is assisted in pollination, and the flowers are thinned appropriately. Strengthening management can improve fruit setting.