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Horseshoe geranium (Pelargonium zonale) profile

Written by Maggie

Feb 25 2021

Horseshoe geranium (Pelargonium zonale) profile

Horseshoe Geranium, scientific name Pelargonium zonale, is a similar species of Geranium in the family of Geranium, a perennial herb, 30-60 cm high, erect stem, lignified base. Horseshoe Geranium is originally produced in southern Africa. Geranium has strong adaptability, bright color, long flowering period, suitable for indoor display, flower bed layout, etc.

Horseshoe Geranium picture

Horseshoe Geranium

Morphological characteristics of Horseshoe Geranium

Horseshoe Geranium is perennial herbaceous, tall 30-60 cm. Stems are erect, base lignified, upper fleshy, much branched or unbranched, with distinct nodes, densely pubescent, with a strong fiscous smell. Leaves are alternate; Stipules of horseshoe geranium are broadly triangular or ovate, 7-15 mm long, pilose and glandular hairy; Petiole is 3-10 cm long, pilose and glandular hairs; Leaf blade of horseshoe geranium is orbicular or reniform, stem cordate, 3-7 cm in diameter, margin undulate lobed, rounded teeth, both surfaces pellucid pubescent, surface with dark red horseshoe rings within leaf margin.Inflorescences umbels axillary, with many flowers, pedicels longer than leaves, pubescent; Involucral bracts are several, broadly ovate; Pedicels of horseshoe geranium are 3-4 cm, pilose and glandular hairy. Bud stage pendulous, anthesis erect; Sepals of Horseshoe Geranium are narrowly lanceolate, 8 -- 10 mm long, outside densely glandular and villous, petals red, orange-red, pink, or white, broadly obovate, 12 -- 15 mm long, 6 -- 8 mm wide, apex rounded, base with short claws, lower 3 usually larger; Ovary of Horseshoe Geranium is densely pubescent. Capsule ca. is 3 cm long, pilose. 

Horseshoe Geranium is a similar species to Geranium. Its main difference is that the stem is usually solitary and only slightly tomentose when young.Flowers small. 

Ecological habits of Horseshoe Geranium

Horseshoe Geranium likes winter warm summer cool, winter indoor keeps I0, 15℃ every day, nocturnal temperature 8℃ above, can Flower normally, but most suitable temperature is 15 20℃. Horseshoe Geranium likes dry evil wet, winter watering should not be too much, want to see dry, see wet. Wet soil is tender stem quality, unfavorable flower sprouts and open; Long-term too wet can cause the plant to grow unfertilized, the flower branch is born a place to move upward, leaf gradually yellow and fall off. Horseshoe Geranium needs plenty of sunshine during its growing period, so it must be placed in a sunny place in winter. Insufficient light, long stems and leaves, soft pedicels, inflorescence dysplasia; Buds in low light tend to be slow to bloom and wither ahead of time.

Horseshoe Geranium does not like big fertilizer, fertilizer can make Horseshoe Geranium grow too much unfavorable blossom. In order to make the flowering luxuriant, every 1-2 weeks to pour a dilute book fertilizer water (cooked bean cake water) every 7 to 10 days to pour 800 times potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution can promote normal flowering. After the flower, cut the broken flower stem in time, can increase the illumination between plants, induce germination of new leaves, and draw out new flower stems.

The Horseshoe Geranium distribution area

Horseshoe Geranium is originally produced in southern Africa.

Horseshoe Geranium

Propagation Horseshoe Geranium

Sowing propagation: spring, autumn can be carried out, indoor pot sowing in spring is good. The optimum temperature for germination was 20 ~ 25℃. Horseshoe Geranium seed is not big, the covering soil after sowing should not be deep, about 2 ~ 5 days germinate. Fall sowing, the next summer can flower. After sowing, the seedlings can be selected and bred into excellent intermediate varieties.

Cuttage propagation: Horseshoe geraniums are in a semi-dormant state, can be cuttings. Take spring and autumn as the best. Summer high temperature, cuttings easy hair black rot. Choose cuttings to grow 10 cm long, best with top ministry, grow potential flourishing, take root fast. Cut the cuttings and let them dry for a few days. After forming a film, insert the cuttings into a bed of sand or a mixture of expanded perlite and peat. Be careful not to damage the stem skin of the cuttings, otherwise the wound is prone to decay. After insertion, put Horseshoe Geranium in a semi-shady place, keep room temperature of 13 ~ 18℃, take root 14 ~ 21 days after insertion, and plant in pot when the root is 3 ~ 4 cm long. The survival rate and rooting rate of cuttings can be increased by soaking the base of cuttings in 0.01% indolin-butinic acid solution for 2 seconds. Tissue culture: Horseshoe Geranium also can use tissue culture methods to breed. Using MS medium as the basic medium, 0.001% indole acetic acid and kinetin were added to induce callus and adventitious buds from explants, and 0.01% indole acetic acid was used to promote rooting. Tissue culture method provides a new way for Horseshoe Geranium propagation and superposition of new varieties. 

How to grow and care for Horseshoe Geranium

Planting technology: spring planting, southern planting, northern appropriate potted indoor winter. Potted Horseshoe Geraniums are generally used. When the ground is planted, the place that should be chosen is not easy to accumulate water, the soil requirement is loose, fertile, drainage is good, and better be sandy loam. Potted selection of leaf rot soil, garden soil and sand mixed culture soil. Before planting Horseshoe Geranium, put tiles in the bottom of the basin to facilitate drainage. Generally planted Horseshoe Geranium in a small pot first, not into the base fertilizer, after curing for a period of time and then moved into a larger pot, then can be applied in the pot into the proper amount of decomposed manure as base fertilizer, above the load into the cultivation soil, the root do not contact with the base fertilizer directly.

Illumination and temperature: Horseshoe Geranium likes sunshine, except summer hot sunshine is very strong, need shade or put indoors, avoid sunshine outside, other times all should accept adequate sunlight irradiation, daily should have 4 hours of day illumination at least, such ability maintains year-round blossom. If the light is insufficient, long-term growth in the shade of the place, the plant is easy to grow barren, and reduces flower bud differentiation. The suitable growth temperature is 16-24℃, and the growth is most vigorous in the cool climate of spring and autumn. Winter should be into the greenhouse, the temperature should be maintained during the day about 15℃, not less than 8℃ at night, and ensure that there is sufficient light, still can continue to grow and bloom.

Watering and fertilization: In Horseshoe Geranium growing period to strengthen water and fertilizer management. Rarely liquid fertilizer should be applied 2-3 times a month, and phosphorus and potassium fertilizer should be added after flower bud differentiation. The soil should always be kept wet and dry, without water shortage and drought, otherwise the leaves will turn yellow and fall off, which will affect the Horseshoe Geranium growth and ornamental value. But also can't water too much, the soil is too wet, can make the plant grow in vain otherwise, affect flower bud differentiation, blossom less, even make root rot and die. Watering should grasp the principle of not pouring, pouring to pour through. Summer temperature is high, the Horseshoe Geranium into hibernation, should control watering, stop fertilization.

Shaping pruning: in order to make the crown of the Horseshoe Geranium plump and compact, should be shaping pruning from the beginning of the seedlings. General seedling height 10 cm pick the heart, promote new branches. When the new branches grow out, but also pick the heart 1-2 times, until the formation of a satisfactory plant shape. The flower opens at branch apical, after flowering every time should pick a flower in time pruning, promote new branch ceaseless, blossom is not long, undertake pruning 3 times in early spring, early reply and autumn hind generally. Because Horseshoe Geranium grows so fast, Horseshoe Geranium has to be trimmed and reshaped every year. Prune the plants at least three times a year. 

Landscape use of Horseshoe Geranium

Horseshoe Geranium has strong adaptability, bright color, long flowering period, suitable for indoor display, flower bed layout, etc.

Horseshoe Geranium