Written by Maggie
Feb 19 2021
Chrysanthemum, also called mums is the most important flower crop in East Asia and one of the three most important flowers in Europe and America. The flower shape is various, easy to adjust maternity leave, and can provide anniversary of cut flowers.
The Chrysanthemum (mum) is a perennial herb with a height of 60-150 cm. Stems are erect, branched or unbranched, pilose. Leaves are alternate, short stipitate, leaf blade ovate to lanceolate, 5 -- 15 cm long, pinnately lobed or semi-lobed, base cuneate, underside white pubescent, margin coarsely serrate or deeply lobed, base cuneate, stipitate. Inflorescences of Chrysanthemum (mum) are solitary or in clusters, 2.5-20 cm in diameter, varying in size, single or in clusters at the apex of a stem or branch; Due to the variety, the difference is very big. Involucral bracts are multilayered, outer green, striate, margin membranous, outside pilose; Ligulate flowers of Chrysanthemum are white, red, purple, or yellow. The flowers and colors are red, yellow, white, orange, purple, pink, dark red and so on. There are many varieties of breeding. The head inflorescences are varied and the shapes and colors are different.
Young stems of Chrysanthemum (mum) are pale green or brownish, gray pilose, or tomentose. The stem is mostly dead after the flower. The following spring by the underground stem produced evil buds. The leaves of Chrysanthemum (mum) are simple and alternate, petiole 1 -- 2 cm long, spikeless or degenerated on both sides below the petiole, ovate to oblong, margins are notched and serrated.
The morphology of the Chrysanthemum (mum) leaves varies by species and can be divided into 8 types: regular leaves, deep regular leaves, long leaves, deep long leaves, round leaves, Sunflower leaves, coniferous leaves and boat leaves. Flowers (head) of Chrysanthemum, occurring at branch tops, about 2 -- 30 cm in diameter, with green buds forming outside the inflorescence.
Inflorescence of Chrysanthemum (mum) has two forms of flowers: a simple flower, commonly known as the "center", corolla linked into a simple, bisexual flower, the center of a pistil, stigma 2 lobes, ovary lower position 1 cell, around the main 5 ZiZi gather medicine stamen; Another is the lingual Flower and is born in the inflorescence edge, commonly known as "petal", the stamen inside the flower degenerates, pistil.
The optimum temperature for Chrysanthemum (mum) growth was 18 ~ 21℃, the maximum temperature was 32℃, the lowest temperature was 10℃, and the low-temperature tolerance limit of underground rhizome was generally -10℃. The lowest night temperature at the flowering stage is 17℃, and it can be reduced to 15 ~ 13℃ at the flowering stage (middle and late). Chrysanthemum (mum) likes the full sun, but also slightly tolerant of shade. Chrysanthemum is resistant to dryness and avoids waterlogging. Chrysanthemum likes high and dry terrain, deep soil layer, rich in humus, easy and fertile and good drainage sandy loam.
Chrysanthemum (mum) plants are positive and have different requirements for light in different growth and development stages. Adequate sunlight is required for vegetative growth and development. After the buds have unfurled and the plant stops growing, full sunlight is no longer needed and shade or semi-shade is available. Accordingly, Chrysanthemum (mum) can be placed indoors for a long time, extending the flowering period and ornamental time. If cross-breeding is required, sufficient sunlight should be given during and after flowering in order to produce full and full seeds.
The Chrysanthemum (mum) likes a wet and cool ecological environment and has some cold resistance and frost resistance. In the hot summer the growth is mostly in a semi-stop state; After the beginning of autumn, the Chrysanthemum (mum) growth is vigorous, when the stem is thickened, the leaves are enlarged, and the flower buds begin to differentiate.
Loose, fertile, humus-rich, aerated and permeable sandy loam is favored by Chrysanthemum (mum). The soil pH value is 6.0-8.0 in the slightly acidic, neutral and alkaline soil that can grow, not too strong acid and alkali.
The growth of Chrysanthemum (mum) with strong drought resistance was best under the condition of 60% soil moisture. In different growth and development periods, the requirements of water and fertilizer are different. There is a saying among flower growers in the old producing areas of Wangjing-Zhuang Village, Yanling County: "The young are afraid of drowning, the old are afraid of early, and they are large-bellied when the bud is formed". That is to say, the Chrysanthemum (mum) is afraid of water inundation at the seedling stage (vegetative growth), and should be applied frequently with small water and small fertilizer. In the Chrysanthemum bud formation and pregnant bud process, to large water-fat (is 2-3 times the seedling stage) timely use. This is conducive to big flowers, more flowers, flowers.
5. Timely heart can promote lateral branches, effectively depressing plant height. Picking the heart time and times of potted plants vary due to different shape selection arts. Generally, 4-7 flowers are left. After the planting of chrysanthemum seedlings, 4-5 leaves are left to pick the heart, and when the lateral branches grow 4-5 leaves, 2-3 leaves are left for the second time.
The Chrysanthemum (mum) has always been regarded as the symbol of solitary mark bright festival, elegant and proud frost, its main words are pure, noble, longevity, good luck, true love.