Java apple (Syzygium samarangense) profile

Written by Maggie

Mar 10 2021

Java apple (Syzygium samarangense) profile

Java Apple fruit apex is flattened, pendulous surface with a waxy luster. Java Apple pulp is spongy with a slight apple aroma. There are many kinds of Java Apple, fruit color is bright, some are turquoise, some are pink, and some are red. Java Apple fruit contains protein, fat, carbohydrate and calcium, phosphorus, potassium and other minerals, suitable for the treatment of heat and diuresis and calming the nerves, cough, asthma is also effective. It is cultivated in Taiwan, Fujian, Guangdong and Guangxi, and its fruit is edible.

Java apple picture

Java apple

The morphological characteristics of Java apple


Java Apple belongs to the tree, 12m high. Squash the young shoots.


Java apple leaves are opposite, petiole is very short, no longer than 4mm, sometimes nearly sessile; Blade heavy leather quality, elliptic to oblong, 10-22 cm long, 6 to 8 cm wide, apex obtuse or slightly acute, base narrow, rounded or slightly cordate, tan, the dry after many tiny glands below points, 14-19 on lateral veins, with opening Angle of 45 degrees oblique line up, away from the edge of the 5 mm combined into each other edge vein, and the other in the near the edge vein of 1.5 mm with 1 additional side veins, lateral veins between 6-10 mm, have obvious network of arteries and veins.


Java apple is cyme terminal or axillary, 5-6cm long, with a number of flowers; Flowers are white, pedicels ca. 5 mm; Calyx tube is obconic, 7 -- 8 mm long, 6 -- 7 mm wide, calyx teeth, semicircular, 4 mm long, double in width; The stamens are very numerous, ca. 1.5cm long, style 2.5-3cm long.


The fruit of the java apple is pear-shaped or conical, fleshy, magenta, shiny, 4 -- 5cm long, apex indented, with persistent fleshy sepals. 

The ecology of Java apple

Java Apple adult tree height is 3 meters, the anniversary of the evergreen, many times pull branches, many flowers and fruits, growth is large, the fruit is also many. The flowering time can be adjusted by special treatment, so that the fruit ripening time can be advanced to December to April of the next year.  

Java Apple likes temperature and is afraid of cold, and the optimal growth temperature is 25 ~ 30℃. No frost damage in winter; At 7°C, bud and young fruit fall off by cold damage; At 10°C, fruits close to harvest will also be damaged and shed.

Java Apple has a high moisture requirement and is highly adaptable to different soil conditions. Java Apple likes moist soil and needs an adequate water supply every year. Java apple by the water will grow strongly, and it is also strong in tolerance to consumption. The areas that are often soaked will also grow normally, blossom and bear fruit. At the same time, the requirements for soil conditions are not strict, sand, clay, red soil and slightly acid or alkaline soil can be planted. The better economic cultivation is the slightly alkaline clayey loam with better irrigation conditions.

Winter and spring fruit big and crisp, less moisture, high sugar, meat thick, no seeds (after the middle and late April flowering of the fruit only have seeds), if the winter and spring fruit germination of trees during the amount of new shoots, adverse to the quality of the fruit, should inhibit its germination.

Java apple fruit is not durable storage, generally can only be stored at room temperature for a week, after the harvest and packaging should be immediately sent to the market for sale.

Java apple disease control

Java apple has anthrax, fruit rot, dung chafers, scale insects, poison moths, aphids, debt avoidance moths, thrips, gall midges, but because of the long fruit fruit period and the thin peel of Java apple, so not suitable for the use of pesticides, especially highly toxic, absorption or long-term pesticides.

Java Apple

A taxonomy of Java apple varieties

Since the introduction of Java Apple into Taiwan from Nanyang, many varieties have been produced by the government guidance and farmers' self-improvement.

Dark (large) red species

Deep red species Java apple.

Commonly known as: native Java Apple.

Colour: dark red.

Fruit shape: Fruit shape is small, flat and conical, some are long and some are short, the average fruit length is about 4.4 cm, the fruit color is deep red, the flesh is white and reddish, the sweet taste is low, slightly astringent, hollow, the color is very bright, storage resistant, the sugar content is about 6.4Brix, the average fruit weight is about 44 grams.

Introduction: It has the longest cultivation history in Taiwan, the smallest fruit type, the bright color, but it is slightly astringent, and the lowest sweetness. It is the early Java Apple in Taiwan.

Origin: Taiwan.

Birth date: July to September in northern China; Southern May - July.

Pink Java Apple

Commonly known as: Nanyang species of Java Apple.

Colour: dark red.

Fruit shape: Large, conical, pink to dark red skin, high water content and sweet taste, the average length of fruit is about 6.7 cm, the width of fruit apex is about 6.4 cm, the longitudinal longitude is similar to the transverse diameter, the sugar content is about 10-14°Brix, the highest can be up to 18Brix, the average fruit weight is about 90-150 grams.

Introduction: it was introduced from south Asia in the early stage, and it is the most cultivated variety in Taiwan at present, which is commonly known as "black pearl" and has the most economic value.

Origin: pingtung county, chiayi county.

Birth date: July to September in northern China;Southern May to July;Adjustment of perinatal period: Pingtung County: December - July.

Black Pearl Java Apple

Improved varieties, pingtung county township in 1961, the forest farmers began to plant Java apple Yu Qi feng village in coastal area, because of the local geology high salt content, and the sea to the south, "Taiwan's common saying: south through the Java apple sweet", although the birth of the java apple fruit is small, but because of the color dark red, glance looks like a bright pearl, and very sweet and sour flavor, sugar is higher than 12 ° Brix, so called "black pearl".

Origin: the main production areas are distributed in Pingdong County Linbian Township, Fangliao Township, Fangshan Township, Jiadong Township, Nanzhou Township, Linluo Township;Meishan Township, Chiayi County.

Seedling information: Guangxi Noqi Fruit Seedling was the first to introduce black pearl JAVA APPLE. After years of cultivation and development, a large-scale grafting seedling garden has been built.

Black Diamond Java Apple

By "thinning fruit" and "bagging technology", the fruit growers in Liugui District of Kaohsiung City have cultivated JJava Apple with large fruit, dark red with luster, much water, and refreshing taste, which is called "black diamond".

Origin: Kaohsiung City Liugui District, Qinzhou Guangxi.

Grafted seedling information: Guangxi Noqi fruit seedling cultivation has grafted seedling.

Black gold steel Java Apple

Improved by black pearl JAVA Apple, the fruit is large, which is separated from the "black diamond" area of Kaohsiung Liugui District and called "black gold gang".

Origin: Pingdong County Linbian Township, Nanzhou Township, Qinzhou, Guangxi.

Seedling information: Nuoqi fruit seedlings have been grafted seedlings, seedlings have rich experience.

White Java Apple

Commonly known as: white Java Apple, white shell Java Apple, new Java Apple, jade Java Apple.

Color: milky white or clear white.

Fruit shape: Small, oblong conical or bell-shaped, milky white flesh, slightly sour, about 5.0 cm long, 4.4 cm wide at the apex, slightly longer at the end near the stalk, about 12Brix sugar content, average weight about 34 g.

Introduction: The fruit type is small, the yield is low, the cultivation is few.

Origin: Xincheng District, Tainan City.

Birth time: May - July in the south.

Turquoise Java Apple

Commonly known as: 20th century Java Apple, green Java Apple, Java Apple fruit, Java Apple navel.

Colour: green with lustre and waxy.

Fruit shape: The fruit is large, flat and round, with special aroma. The fruit is about 5.1cm, the width of the top is about 5.4cm, the end near the stalk is a little narrow, and the top is slightly convex. Therefore, it is also called "Java Apple with convex hilum".

Introduction: Fruit shape like guava, because of thin flesh, shape and color is not good, easy to drop fruit, easy to grow long branches, so cultivation is not much.

Origin: kaohsiung city.

Birth period: May to July.

Big fruit Java Apple

Colour: dark red to dark crimson.

Fruit shape: Flat or conical, the pericarp with distinct elongation, the navel with 4 small sepal and separate, dense pulp, small cavernous tissue and fruit cavity at maturity, the fruit length is 6.9 cm, the width near the navel is 7.6 cm, the navel is flat or slightly convex, the fruit width is often larger than the fruit length, the sugar content is about 12-13 brix, the average fruit weight is about 160 g.

Introduction: the fruit shape is larger than the nanyang species, because of the characteristics of large fruit shape, good color and so on, the cultivated area increased.

Period of delivery: December to May.

Malacca Java Apple

Color: milky white.

Fruit shape: Flat bell shape, small fruit shape, fruit length is about 4.9 cm, fruit apex width is about 5.4 cm, the longitudinal diameter is shorter than the transverse diameter, the surface of the pericarp has obvious ridges, sugar content is about 5~6Brix, the average fruit weight is about 55.7 g.

Brief introduction: short flowering period, high fruit moisture content, less economic cultivation.

Origin: Xincheng District, Tainan City.

Thai Ruby (Thub Thim Chan)

Colour: dark red to dark red

Fruity: Fruit with solid flesh, less spongy body, crisp and juicy, about 10.1cm in length and 6.2cm in width, sugar content varies with location, fruit stem about 10~12°Brix, fruit at 12~14°Brix, single fruit weight about 130~ 250g.

Introduction: Introduced from Thailand in 2000, the "Bullet Java Apple" on the market is this variety.

The bullet Java apple

The color is dark red, and the appearance resembles a bullet, so it gets its name. It is also known as missile Java Apple. The flesh of the fruit has a red dizzy feeling, and the taste is sweet but slightly astringent. Not all white, little production, high price.

Purple drill Java apple

Gukeng Township by Yunlin County He surnamed fruit farmers try to breed.

Origin: Gukeng Township, Yunlin County; Pingtung county.

Birth period: 6~10 months in Yunlin County, 9~4 months in Pingtung County.

Native species of Indonesia

Commonly known as: Sugarcane Java Apple.

Colour: dark red.

Description: the causal type is slightly longer, the shape is especially called.

Indonesian large fruited species

Colour: red in elevation, yellow-green or green in plane.

Fruit shape: fruit surface with grain furrow, deep and deep red spots in the development of the fruit, round and sharp stalk, crisp and juicy flesh, little spongy body, sweet and fragrant, with unique flavor of Java Apple, high maturity, no acid and no acerb, fruit length about 12 cm, fruit width about 8.6 cm, fruit weight about 180~450 grams.

Introduce: Introduce from Indonesia 2001, as a result of fruit from big be like adult palm size, reason has "palm Java Apple" say, because provide Pu Peach aroma again, say again "perfume Java Apple".

Birth date: June to October.

Regal Big Java Apple

Gukeng Township by Yunlin County He surnamed fruit farmers try to breed.

Origin: Gukeng Township, Yunlin County; Pingtung county.

Birth period: 6~10 months in Yunlin County, 9~4 months in Pingtung County.

Pale pink Java Apple

Commonly known as: Java Apple.

Color: pale pink

Fruit shape: The average length of the fruit is about 4.3 cm, the width of the fruit apex is about 4.7 cm, the longitudinal diameter is shorter than the transverse diameter, commonly known as "Java Apple", usually contains 1 to 2 seeds. It is a medium variety with a sugar content of about 7Brix and an average fruit weight of about 38 g.

Introduction: Because the shape and color is not good, it has no economic cultivation value.

Java apple's distribution area

Originally from Malaysia and India, Java Apple was introduced to Taiwan in the 17th century. Since the 1930s, it has been successively introduced and cultivated in Hainan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Fujian and Yunnan, but the cultivated quantity is still relatively small.

The Java apple has a long history of cultivation in Taiwan, having been introduced by the Dutch from Java in the 17th century. It is mainly distributed in Yilan, Changhua, Tainan, Pingtung and other places, and the best Java Apple in Treasury-Island is produced in the southernmost county - Pingtung. In Taiwan, the cultivated area of Java Apple reaches 133,500 mu, and the yield per mu reaches 894.1 kg. Due to the research breakthrough of varieties and cultivation techniques, Java Apple has advanced its production period and improved its quality. It is now regarded as a good summer fruit and ranks the 6th and 7th among more than 20 major economic fruit trees in Taiwan.

Java apple uses

Edible value

Java Apple fruit is bright in color, beautiful in appearance, juicy and tasty in fruit, and rich in nutrition. It contains a small amount of protein, fat and minerals. It not only has a special flavor, but also is a holy product for refreshing and thirst quenching. At the same time, Java Apple also has appetizing, refreshing, diuretic, heat and calm the mind and other therapeutic functions, mainly to fresh food, can also be salted, canned and dehydrated preserves or juice, can also be fried as vegetables, fried squid. Therefore, the consumption of Java Apple can absorb enough calories for the needs of normal physiological activities of the human body, and it has a higher nutritional health function for the human body.

Nutritional value

Java Apple is rich in vitamin C, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, calcium, magnesium, boron, manganese, iron, copper, zinc, molybdenum and other trace elements, Java Apple moisture content is good for the skin.

Java Apple is a slightly alkaline fruit that can regulate the pH of the human stomach and intestines.

Java Apple has a special fragrance and is a natural antipyretic. Because it contains a lot of water, it has an antipyretic, diuretic and calming effect on diet.

When children have dyspepsia, use Java Apple with salt to eat, it has the effect of helping digestion, and adults eat it very well. It has the effect of generating fluid and quenching thirst.

Java Apple root is mainly used for poor urination and wet and itchy skin.

Medicinal value

Java Apple is a kind of good fruit that can cure a variety of diseases. Traditional Chinese medicine believes that Java Apple 'has a sweet taste and a smooth taste', and functions to moisten the lung, stop coughing, remove phlegm, cool the blood and astringent.In the theory of traditional Chinese medicine food therapy, Java Apple boiled rock sugar to eat can stop cough and remove phlegm, and Java Apple with trace salt to eat can treat indigestion.

Java apple propagation 

Java Apples grow spontaneously from seed. Preferred types are reproduced by layering, budding onto their own rootstocks. Sometimes the java apple is grafted onto the cultivated Rose Apple.

Java Apple