Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) profile

Written by Maggie

Apr 16 2021

Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) profile

Jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) is an evergreen tree, up to 25m. Annual branches are reddish-brown or grayish, glabrous; Bracts present on branches in 2003.

Jack pine picture

Jack pine

Jack pine info

Botanical Name Pinus banksiana
Common Names Jack pine
Plant Type Evergreen
Sun Full sun, part shade
Hardiness Zones 2 to 6
Native Area Canada, Northern United States
Mature size 30 to 70 feet high

Jack pine morphological characteristics

Jack pine is a tree up to 25 m in origin, 60-80 cm in diameter at breast height, sometimes shrubby; Bark is dark brown, split into irregular scaly flakes abscission; Branches are nearly flat, crown tower shaped; The annual growth of two to three rounds of branches, branchlets light purple brown or brown; Winter bud is brown, moment round ovoid, by resinous. Needles 2 needles in a bunch, stout, usually twisted, 2 -- 4 cm long, ca. 2 mm in diameter, apex obtuse, stomatal lines on both sides, margin entire; Transverse section flat semicircle, subcutaneous layer of cells two layers, continuous arrangement, resin channel usually 2, medium; Leaf sheaths of Jack pine are brown, abscission after 2-3 years or abscission at the same time as the leaves. Cones are erect or downward curved, subsessile, narrow conic-elliptic, asymmetrical, usually curved medially, 3 -- 5 cm long, 2 -- 3 cm in diameter, greenish-yellow or brownish yellow at maturity, persistent on trees for many years; Species scale are thin, slow to open, scale shield flat or slightly raised, often into a polygonal oblique square, transverse ridge is obvious, scale umbilicus flat or slightly concave, no thorns; Seeds are 3-4 mm long, with longer wings, about three times as long as the seed. 

Jack pine distribution

Jack pine distribution range in the sunny mountains and plains. Jack pine is native to northeastern North America. China's Liaoning xingye, Fushun, Beijing, Shandong Qingdao, Mongolia Shandong Tashan, Jiangsu Nanjing, Jiangxi Lushan and Henan Jigong Mountain and other places have been introduced, planted planted for ornamental trees.Growth is slow.

Jack pine growing environment

Jack pine is a temperate tree with strong cold and drought resistance and extreme low temperature tolerance of -56℃. The average annual temperature of the suitable area is -5 to 4℃, and the annual precipitation is 300-1400 mm. Adapt to a variety of soil, sandy land, hills and stony mountains can grow, pH4.5-8, drought tolerance barren, poor permeability of the soil, in the deep loose, fertile, slightly acidic site growth is best.

How to grow and care for Jack pine


Jack pine seedlings are based on full solar at the beginning of their increase cycle, and these timber do quality with at least 6 hours or greater of direct solar all through their lifestyles cycle. In fact, decreasing branches of the tree once in a while die due to the fact of being shaded from the sun’s rays through the tree’s canopy.


The jack pine is in a position to adapt to very dry soil prerequisites and is regularly determined in sandy soil. However, it's been stated that its desire is for loamy soils that have a combination of clay, sand, and nutrient-rich humus material. Generally, jack pine timber decides on acidic soil however can develop in some alkaline soils if the prerequisites are right.

These timber frequently do nicely in soil that has been ravaged by wildfires and are rapid to spring up in the naked mineral soil.


Jack pine is now not established on an abundance of water. This drought-tolerant tree species would a whole lot select dry prerequisites to being swamped in moist soil. As a hardy conifer, it's not going that you have to complement this tree with an ordinary watering schedule. Unless intense prerequisites prevail, the jack pine is commonly blissful with the annual rainfall it receives.

Temperature and humidity

The jack pine well-known shows superb hardiness in the cold, and can live to tell the tale even the frigid wintry weather temperatures of USDA hardiness sector two However, they don’t fare so properly in hot, humid summer season stipulations and decide upon climates with short, heat to cool summers. It’s no surprise, then, that these bushes are frequently determined in the biggest numbers in the United States in the states of Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin.


These bushes develop the place few different vegetation dare to—preferring the naked mineral soil of websites currently ravaged by using wildfire. These timber thrive in low nutrient soils, so it’s not likely that you’ll want to fertilize the soil surrounding a jack pine tree. Cross this mission off your to-do listing if you plant a jack pine tree in your yard!


The jack pine tree is regarded for its free-styling nature and tends to develop in a range of directions. This wayward boom sample offers these bushes personality and a special look, so don’t assume to prune or form it into the appearance of a traditional conifer.

In addition, these bushes frequently maintain their useless decreased limbs for a prolonged length of time. You can lop them off, however it’s regularly no longer imperative to do so. If you do determine to smooth up the decrease extremities of your jack pine tree, do so in the spring earlier than the sap starts off evolved strolling in the summer season season.

Jack pine

Propagating Jack pine

If you’re searching to multiply jack pine trees, the tightly sealed pine cones maintain the key to propagation. Inside these cones, which can continue to be sealed for decades, are lots of seeds that can sprout new jack pine seedlings. Choose pine cones that are mature, which is typically indicated by means of an altering of coloration in the fall. Trees typically want to be three to 5 years ancient to serve as a seed source.

Once you’ve accrued the seeds of a jack pine tree, you’ll want to coax the cone to open. Under herbal circumstances, warmness (usually from a wildfire) is accountable for loosening the resin that holds the cone closed. No want to toss these pine cones in the fireplace to get right of entry to the seeds inside. Instead, you can soak the cones in warm water for 8-12 hours and then set them in the solar and wait for them to open.

Germination takes place shortly with jack pine seeds, and as stated earlier, these plant life don’t require something extra than naked mineral soil to get started. However, the seeds will from time to time want a speedy bloodless stratification to jolt them from their dormancy.

Prevention and control of diseases and pests of Jack pine


To prevent the occurrence of standing blight, seedlings out of all, timely spraying 1-3% ferrous sulfate solution for seedling bed surface disinfection, spray half an hour after the seedlings with clean water. To prevent long-term use of a drug, so that the bacteria resistant to its use, it can use dixone, carbendazim, bacteriotoxin clear, mancozeb, methyl tobujin and other pesticides, according to the condition and use instructions every 5-7 days alternatively spray once, until no seedlings disease. In order to better disinfect the soil and improve soil pH, root irrigation with 1% ferrous sulfate solution was performed every 20 to 25 days. The insect pest of Jack pine mainly has ground tiger and dung chafer, can use bran mix zinc sulfur phosphorus to spread control. 

Insect pests

At the seedling stage, the roots of Jack pine were irrigated with 50% Dixonzine 200-400 times solution or 70% DixonWet Powder 700 times solution at the dosage of 2-3 kg/m2 or 3% Carbofuran Granules to drive underground pests and evenly spread on the garden at the dosage of 15-25 kg/ha. 

The sound

The cotyledons of Jack pine were unearthed with seed shells, and the seed shells began to fall off 8-9 days after being unearthed. During this period, birds are most likely to peck at them. Now, sunshade nets or gauze are mostly used to prevent the harm of birds and rats, and the sunshade nets or gauze are removed in time after the seed shells fall off. 

Jack pine main value

Jack pine is a fast-growing timber and protection tree in cold regions. The wood is used for papermaking, general construction and fuelwood, and the leaves can be extracted from aromatic oil and medicine. Jack pine is an excellent tree species for urban greening and beautification with lush foliage and graceful tree shape.
Jack pine