Title

Iris speculatrix profile

Written by Maggie

Mar 26 2021

Iris speculatrix profile

Iris Speculatrix is a perennial herb that is highly speculatrix and has a lanceolate sheath of old leaves at the base. Rhizome bifidus branched, obliquely extended, brown; Roots are stout, less branched. Leaves are slightly curved, dark green, glossy, saliform or striate, with 3-5 longitudinal veins. Flower stems are smooth, unbranched or occasionally lateral, with 1-2 cauline leaves.

Iris Speculatrix picture

Iris Speculatrix

Iris Speculatrix morphological characteristics

Iris speculatrix is a perennial herb with brown old leaf sheath fibers at the base and lanceolate sheath like leaves. Rhizome bifidus branched, obliquely extended, brown; Roots are stout, less branched. Leaves are slightly curved, dark green, shiny, sword-shaped or striate, 15 -- 30 x 0.6 -- 1.2 cm, apically acuminate, basally sheathlike, with 3 -- 5 longitudinal veins.

Flower stems of Iris Speculatrix are smooth, unbranched or occasionally lateral, 20 -- 25 cm tall, with 1-2 cauline leaves; Iris Speculatrix has 2-3 bracts, grassy, green, narrowly lanceolate, 5.5 -- 7.5 cm long, apically acuminate, containing 1-2 flowers; Pedicels are 3 -- 5.5 cm long, flowers withered and curved; Flowers are purplish blue or bluish, 5.6-6 cm in diameter; Perianth tubes is short and thick, ca.5 mm long, outer perianth lobes spatulate, ca. 3.5 cm long and ca. 9 mm wide, with dark purple ring markings, midrib with bright yellow corn-like appendages, flat, felt-like appendages, inner perianth lobes narrowly lanceolate, ca. 3.7 cm long and ca. 9 mm wide, erect; Stamens ca. are 1.2 cm long, anthers white, longer than filaments; Styles are branched flat, ca. 2.5 cm long and 7 mm wide, the same color as perianth lobes, apical lobes slender, narrowly triangular, ovary fusiform, green, 1.6 -- 2 cm long, ca.5 mm in diameter.

Capsule of Iris Speculatrix is elliptic, 5-5.5 cm long, about 2 cm in diameter, with a slender and pointed beak at the top, Fruit pedicle after Flower wither bent into a 90 degree Angle, making the fruit horizontal state; The seeds are polyhedral, brown, with small wings. 

Iris Speculatrix's ecological habits

Iris Speculatrix grows in the wild state at the edge of shrubs, sunny slopes, forest margins and waterside wetlands. The planting environment likes moist sandy loam or light clay with good drainage and rich humus. It has a certain saline-alkali tolerance and can grow normally in mild saline-alkali soil with a pH value of 8.7 and salt content of 0.2%. Iris Speculatrix likes light and tolerates shade. It can also grow normally in a semi-shade environment. Iris Speculatrix loves warm and cool climate, strong cold resistance.

Iris Speculatrix distribution area

Iris Speculatrix was born in the mountains, roadside, forest margin or sparse forest, produced in Anhui, Zhejiang, Fujian, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Guangdong, Guangxi, Sichuan, Guizhou.The type specimens were collected from Hong Kong.

Iris Speculatrix propagation

Division

Iris Speculatrix propagation by division is generally carried out every 2 to 4 years, in spring, autumn or after flowering. The Iris Speculatrix is divided after flowering (to avoid the plum rain season), so that the flower buds can be fully differentiated before winter and bloom the next year. When dividing the rhizome, it is better to use 3 to 4 buds. If the ramets are too thin, it will affect the next year's flowering.In the division of plant propagation, the upper leaves should be cut off, leaving about 20 cm for planting. Most varieties of iris should be planted shallowly. Planting spacing varies according to species, 50×50 cm for robust species, and about 20×20 cm for general varieties.

Sow

If seed propagation is used, it should be carried out as soon as the seeds are mature so that the seeds will germinate easily and bloom in 2 to 3 years.

Ball

After one year of planting, a bulb will run out of nutrients and produce new roots. Around the new bulb will be a number of bulbs, which, after one or two years of planting, will develop into flowering bulbs. The world flower planting experts carry out tissue culture on different organs of Iris bulba, such as axillary bud, bulb, stem disk and flower stem, to make them grow new bulbs, which provides a new method for accelerating reproduction and cultivating disease-free and robust female balls.

How to grow and care for Iris Speculatrix

Soil

Iris Speculatrix can be grown in either protected or open fields. Iris Speculatrix can be planted in any type of soil, as long as it is well drained, highly hydrating and does not solidify. Good soil structure is very important for the growth of iris, and sandy loam has the best effect, because sandy loam has good aeration and water permeability, which is very conducive to the expansion of iris root system. In order to improve the structure of clay soil, vegetation ash, perlite, coarse sand and so on can be applied to the soil surface before planting and then deeply plowed and mixed. If the soil is sandy and leaking too quickly, mulching the post-planted soil with rice husks, pine needles, and peat can alleviate the problem.

Disinfection

It is best to disinfect the soil for planting iris once a year. Soil disinfection is a very important link, and the method of deep turning air drying or chemical disinfection is generally adopted. The general drying time of deep turning is about 20 days. Chemical disinfection is generally carried out by spraying chlorothalonil or pentachloronitrobenzene. The ball must be disinfected before planting, with 1/1000 of Clendan or chlorothalonil aqueous solution soaked for 30 minutes can be. The balls of Iris Speculatrix should be disinfected and planted immediately after arrival. If they cannot be planted immediately, they must be stored in cold storage below 2℃ and well ventilated, and stored for no more than two weeks. Storage for too long will be detrimental to the growth of the stem and leaves later, and also increase the chance of penicillium infection in the root cap. 

Planting

When planting Iris Speculatrix, the soil temperature is required to be lower than 20℃. If the average temperature during the cultivation period is expected to exceed 23℃, Iris Speculatrix cannot be planted, and the planting period must be advanced or postponed. If you want to get high quality cut flowers, it is best to use large size balls, 9/10 or 10/+. The planting of Iris Speculatrix bulbs must be very careful, especially when the root system has already begun to grow, to avoid damaging the root system as much as possible. The planting depth should be 7-10 cm from the top of the ball. Shallowly planted bulbs are easily damaged by dry soil and prone to lodging in late growth. The planting density should be 80-100 bulbs per square meter.

The temperature

The soil temperature after planting is very important. The lowest temperature is 5-8℃, the highest temperature is 20℃, and the optimal temperature is 16-18℃. The lowest temperature is 5℃, the highest temperature is 25℃, the best is 15℃.

Watering

Iris Speculatrix is fond of water, so the soil should be kept moist in the cultivation process, because the soil is too dry, which is not conducive to the growth of the plant. Generally, it can be watered every 10 days or so in the non-rainy season. In the rainy season, natural rainfall can be obtained, and sufficient antifreeze water should be filled in the late autumn. In the early spring of the next year, the defrosting water must be watered thoroughly. Water must be watered before planting to ensure that the soil is moist and conducive to rapid rooting during planting. Water again after planting to bring the soil in full contact with the balls. After the soil moisture to keep wet as the standard, that is, the hands hold into a group, loosen not to come loose. Watering is best done in the morning. It is better to keep the relative humidity of the air at 75-80%.Iris is sensitive to salt, so the EC value of irrigation water should not be greater than 0.5ms/cm.

Fertilization

It is not advisable to apply basic fertilizer before planting (except organic fertilizer), because Iris Speculatrix is very sensitive to soil salt. If the fertilizer is applied before planting, the salt content in the soil will be increased and the root of iris will be hindered. Late topdressing methods can be used, but Iris Speculatrix is more sensitive to fluorine, such as calcium superphosphate and triphosphide are prohibited, and bisphosphonate with low fluorine content can be used. Before planting can be applied into cow manure or drying chicken manure as base fertilizer, base fertilizer application should be mixed with cultivated soil, spring planting after survival, can be applied in early summer urea, early autumn top dressing a phosphorus and potassium fertilizer, the end of autumn combined with pouring frozen water and shallow application of cow and horse dung, can also be directly scattered in the garden.

Weeding

The Garden of planting Iris Speculatrix should do a good job of killing grass ahead of time. In the process of planting, if there are weeds, they should be pulled out artificially in time, and chemical herbicides should not be used to remove weeds as far as possible.

Harvest

In autumn, the Iris Speculatrix can be harvested when the top 3 cm below the coloration. In spring and summer, the tip of the flower can be cut off when it is spread 1 cm. The tip refers to the part of the flower bud that is completely colored. When uprooted, the flowers immediately after harvest into bundles, or as soon as possible into the freezer. After harvesting, the bulbous roots are first cut off, and the excessively long leaf tips and yellow-brown leaves that affect the appearance are removed, then graded and bundled. With a grade of 5 centimeters is appropriate, tied in a bunch of Iris Speculatrix, the longest branch and the shortest branch had better not exceed 3 centimeters, flower top alignment.Immediately after harvest, it is sent to the refrigerated room pre-adjusted to 2℃. The flower stems collected in autumn and winter are soft and easy to bend. After bundling, they should be immersed in 2℃ cold water and placed in a 2℃ cold room for at least two hours.

Iris Speculatrix

Iris Speculatrix disease & pest control

Southern blight  

It mainly damages the base of the stem or leaves of the Iris Speculatrix, and in severe cases, the whole plant dies. High temperature and humidity, infertile soil compaction when the incidence of high.

Method of prevention and cure

The rotation period should be more than 4 years. Proper ventilation to avoid overdensity. Before the onset of the disease, regularly spray 50% carbendazim WP 500 times or 50% topazine WP 500 times.

Leaf blight

Leaf blight is a common disease, which is highly infectious and has great influence on the growth of iris. The symptoms, occurrence rules and prevention methods are introduced as follows: the symptoms mostly start from the tip of the leaf. At the beginning of the disease, the tip of the leaf has grayish brown spots or patches of dry, and then gradually infects the base of the leaf. Finally, the whole leaf is scorched and dry, and black granular matter appears. The regularity of the incidence is that the pathogen overwinters in the state of sclerotinia on the soil or the residual body of the disinfected plant, spreads in the middle of spring with rain, wind or watering, and can get sick throughout the growing season, and the peak of the incidence is from June to September.

Method of prevention and cure

Strengthen quarantine and do not introduce diseased plants. Disinfect the soil and plants before planting. Strengthen daily maintenance to prevent planting water. At the early stage of the disease, the leaf should be cut off in time to reduce the source of infection. In winter, the surface leaves will be cut off and burned. If the disease can be used 75% chlorothalonil WP 800 times liquid and 70% methyl tobuzine WP 1500 times liquid spray alternately, continuous spray 4 to 5 times, each interval of 8 to 10 days.

Damping off

The corm scales of Iris Speculatrix affected by the disease become soft at the base, then become grayish-brown, covered with a white mold, and finally rot away completely. Its etiology is mainly by spores infection, generally the higher the temperature, the faster the spread of disease development.

Method of prevention and cure

Disinfect the ball with tetrachlorodane and free drip. Disinfect the soil by steam sterilization or by potassium bromide. Cropping rotation with gladiolus and freesia.

Root rot

The main performance in the local growth of the plant was blocked, the bud withered, the root system was water stain like decay.The cause is the nematode through the soil in the infected root, more difficult to control.

Method of prevention and cure

① with tetrachlorodane + free to rely on the disinfection of the ball.② Soil disinfection, or in the initial stage of disease after planting with Edeli 5-8 grams or 7-14 milliliters per square meter disinfection. ③ Disinfect with methane bromide.

Tajiri rot

The Iris Speculatrix with jiri rot showed poor fertility, and its leaves turned yellow and withered soon. The base of the ball is corrupt, and there is white mold in the late stage.

Method of prevention and cure

① oxidation of bitter soil disinfection.② Lobilon impregnated bulb disinfection.

Mosaic

The main performance for the leaf part has a gray round point or yellow, white stripes, the Iris Speculatrix leaves look through light, there are many transparent small spots, soon become purple spots, from the lower leaves up the wither. The main cause is that the virus is transmitted by aphids or by contact with hands and utensils.

Method of prevention and cure

(1) Selecting disease-free plants or bulbs for propagation.② hand, knife and other tools disinfection.(3) to control aphids with pesticides such as marathon, dimethyl oxate and aphid.

Root rot nematode

Iris Speculatrix is affected after the local growth hindrance, bud wither, the root system presents many short and narrow black roots, serious bulb root will rot away. Control methods: steam sterilization or methane bromine disinfection of the soil.

The cricket

Crickets breed mainly in weeds, eating the buds first and then eating the leaves of the plants.

Method of prevention and cure

① Spray heptachloride to kill insects.③ Get rid of weeds early. 

Iris Speculatrix, moreover, in the process of growth and easy pests such as aphids, red ticks, mainly in the high temperature drying, big occurs is not easy to extinction, therefore to spray in the early organic sulfur agent acaricidal, eliminate mites (g) and other kill ticks agent, at the same time, the use of pesticides such as dichlorvos smoke agent, also can get good control effect. But in high temperature wet and the whole flowering period is easy to produce drug damage, so to avoid using, or after spraying with water rinsing. Convenient use of injection tube pressurized spray, disinsectization effect is also very good.

Iris Speculatrix uses

Gardening

Iris Speculatrix is of high ornamental value because of its bright color, easy cultivation, early germination in spring and beautiful appearance of clusters of green leaves. Plantation in the garden or in the flower border, roadside planting. Iris Speculatrix flowers have beautiful leaf color and the characteristics of tall and straight branches, can be used for flower groups, clusters and mirrors. Planting according to the location, the iris ornamental grasses with different colors, flowering dates and plant heights can be matched and selected, and other kinds of flowers can also be selected. Some bearded species with relatively short rhizomes tend to grow in calcareous and drought-tolerant soils, and are particularly suitable for use in rock landscapes. Do not plant too many trees during greening, but only plant a certain amount of low shrubs in appropriate locations.

In the selection of Iris Speculatrix species, it is necessary to take full consideration from the aspects of ornamental period and so on, so that it can complement iris. There are many aquatic species and wet species, and iris plants are also widely used in the layout of waterscape gardens. Most species can survive in moist soil. During the actual use of Iris Speculatrix, various kinds of water landscape gardens can be arranged. Moreover, when this kind of breed is arranged, it is most suitable for the continuous composition from the water to the shore, and it can be set according to the requirements of the conditions of water.

Medicine

Iris Speculatrix rhizome: acrid, bitter, cold.Have a little poison.Dissipation, remove blood stasis, water, detoxification. Iris Speculatrix is used for stagnation of abdominal distention, accumulation of immaculate, injury of fall, leakage of hemorrhoids, and toxicity of carbuncle.

Iris Speculatrix