Broccoli Profile

Written by Joy

Nov 04 2020

Broccoli Profile

Broccoli is native to Italy and is a common vegetable. Commonly known as green cauliflower, also known as broccoli. It is a biennial herb and a variant of cabbage. The leaves of broccoli are large, and the top of the main stem forms a large flower ball, green or purple-green, the surface of the small flower buds are not densely packed, and the top of the side branch has small flower balls.

Broccoli morphological characteristics

Broccoli, also known as broccoli, broccoli, green cauliflower, is a variety of green curd in the Brassica spp. of the cruciferous family. He originated in Italy along the Mediterranean coast of Europe and was introduced to China at the end of the 19th century.
The morphology and growth habit of broccoli are similar to those of cauliflower, but they grow robustly and have strong heat and cold resistance.
The plant is tall and grows more than 20 leaves. The flower stems are drawn out. The top is densely clustered into clusters of bulbous flower buds. The flower buds are blue-green, so it is also called broccoli. The leaf color is blue-green, gradually turning to dark blue-green, and wax powder increases. The petiole is long and narrow. The leaf shape has a broadleaf and longleaf.

Broccoli efficacy and role

The nutritional value of broccoli

A recent study in Japan concluded that the average nutritional value and disease prevention effect of broccoli far exceeds that of other vegetables, ranking first.
The nutrients in broccoli are not only high in content but also very comprehensive, mainly including protein, carbohydrates, fat, minerals, vitamin C, and carotene. Besides, broccoli has a more comprehensive mineral composition than other vegetables. The content of calcium, phosphorus, iron, potassium, zinc, and manganese is very rich, which is much higher than that of cabbage flowers that belong to the cruciferous family.
Many people think that tomatoes and peppers are the most vitamin C-rich vegetables. In fact, the vitamin C content of broccoli is higher than them, and it is also significantly higher than other ordinary vegetables. Moreover, broccoli has a very complete variety of vitamins, especially the rich content of folic acid, which is an important reason why broccoli's nutritional value is higher than that of ordinary vegetables.

Anticancer effects of broccoli

The anti-cancer effect of broccoli is an important content of research by Western countries and Japanese scientists in recent years. On the anti-cancer vegetable rankings announced by the National Cancer Research Center of Japan, broccoli tops the list. The American Journal of Nutrition also published the research results of broccoli's ability to effectively prevent prostate cancer. The anti-cancer effect of broccoli is mainly attributed to the glucosinolate contained in it. It is said that long-term consumption can reduce the incidence of breast cancer, rectal cancer and gastric cancer.
In addition to fighting cancer, broccoli is also rich in ascorbic acid, which can enhance the liver's detoxification ability and improve the body's immunity. A certain amount of flavonoids can regulate and prevent hypertension and heart disease. At the same time, broccoli is a high-fiber vegetable, which can effectively reduce the gastrointestinal absorption of glucose, thereby reducing blood sugar and effectively controlling diabetes.
In addition, when selecting broccoli, the heavier the hand, the better the quality. However, it is also necessary to avoid the hard bulbs, as this broccoli is relatively old. It is best to eat it within 4 days after buying it back, otherwise, it will not be fresh.

Broccoli cultivation


Broccoli does not have very strict requirements for light, but it likes sufficient light during the growth process. When the light is sufficient, the plant grows vigorously and can form a powerful vegetative body, which is conducive to photosynthesis and nutrient accumulation and makes the flower bulb. It is compact and dense, with bright green color and good quality. Excessive sunlight in midsummer is not conducive to the growth and development of broccoli.


In the range of 5-20℃, the higher the temperature, the faster the growth and development of broccoli. The optimum temperature for germination is 20-25℃, and the optimum temperature for seedling growth is 15-20℃. Broccoli has strong cold and heat resistance. The optimal temperature for growth in the rosette stage is 20-22°C, and the optimal temperature for curd development is 15-18°C. When the temperature is higher than 25°C, the quality of the curd tends to deteriorate. Not subject to freezing damage, the curd can grow slowly at a low temperature of 5℃ or even below. Different varieties and different seedling ages of broccoli have relatively large differences in the temperature required to complete vernalization, so the selection of varieties during annual cultivation is very important.


Broccoli requires a lot of water during the entire growth process, especially during the vigorous growth of the leaves and the formation of the flower bulb. Even a short-term drought will reduce the yield. Rainy or high soil moisture in the seedling stage can easily cause diseases such as black rot and black spot. During the formation of the flower bulb, the soil moisture and the field water holding capacity of about 70% to 80% can meet the growth needs.

Soil nutrients

Broccoli does not require strict soil conditions, but if it is too poor, the plant will not develop well and yield and quality will be low; while the soil is too fertile, which will lead to loose buds and hollow moss. Broccoli is suitable for planting on loam and sandy loam with good irrigation and drainage, deep arable layer, loose and fertile soil, and strong water retention and preservation. Adapt to the soil pH range of 5.5 to 8, but 6 is the best. Broccoli needs sufficient fertilizer during the whole growth process, and the ratio of N, P, K is 14:5:8. The seedling stage requires relatively more nitrogen, and the requirements for P and K are relatively increased after the flower buds begin to differentiate. Note that broccoli requires more trace elements such as boron, molybdenum, and magnesium during flower bulb development. Therefore, applying appropriate trace element foliar fertilizers before budding will significantly improve yield and quality.