Breadfruit is an evergreen tree of Moraceae, 10-15 meters high; the bark is gray-brown and thick. The leaves are large, alternate, thickly leathery, ovate to ovate-elliptic, on both sides glabrous, dark green on the surface, shiny, light green on the back, whole; petiole length 8-12 cm; stipules large, lanceolate or broad lanceolate, yellow-green, flat pilose by gray or brown. Inflorescence solitary leaf axils, male inflorescence long cylindrical to oblong or rod-shaped, yellow. The male flower tepal of breadfruit is tubular, hairy, upper part 2-lobed, lobes lanceolate, anthers elliptic, style is long, poly flower fruit is obovate or subglobose, green to yellow, with round tumor-like protrusions on the surface, Mature brown to black, soft, the inner surface is composed of the milky white fleshy perianth; the drupe is oval to conical. There are few stone fruits or seedless fruits cultivated.
Breadfruit is native to the Pacific Islands, India and the Philippines. It is one of the most famous tropical trees in the Malay Islands. It is also cultivated in Taiwan and Hainan of China. The wood of breadfruit is light, soft and thick, and can be used as a construction material. Fruit is one of the main foods in the tropics. The fruit flavor is similar to bread, hence the name.
Breadfruit morphological characteristics
Breadfruit is an evergreen tree, 10-15 meters high. Its bark is gray-brown and thick. Leaves are large, alternate, thickly leathery, ovate to ovate-elliptic, 10-50 cm long, mature leaves are pinnately divided, mostly 3-8 pinnate on both sides, lobes lanceolate, apex acuminate, Both sides glabrous, dark green on the surface, shiny, light green on the back, whole, about 10 pairs of lateral veins; petiole 8-12 cm long; stipules large, lanceolate or broad-lanceolate, 10-25 cm long, Yellow-green, flat pilose by gray or brown.
Breadfruit inflorescence has solitary leaf axils, male inflorescence is long cylindrical to oblong or rod-shaped, 7-30 cm long, yellow. The male flower tepal of breadfruit is tubular, hairy, upper part 2-lobed, lobes lanceolate, 1 stamen, anthers are oval, female flower tepals are tubular, ovary ovoid, style long, stigma 2-lobed, poly flora inverted Oval or nearly spherical, the length-to-width ratio of 1-4, length 15-30 cm, diameter 8-15 cm, green to yellow, with round tumor-like protrusions on the surface, mature brown to black, soft, and milky white inside Consists of the succulent perianth. The stone fruit of breadfruit is oval to conical, with a diameter of about 25 mm. There are few stone fruits or seedless fruits cultivated.
Breadfruit growth habit and growing environment and distribution
Breadfruit is native to the Pacific Islands, India and the Philippines. It is one of the most famous tropical trees in the Malay Islands. It is also cultivated in Taiwan and Hainan of China.
Breadfruit is a tropical tree species, a positive plant, and grows fast. Need strong light, heat resistance, drought resistance, humidity resistance, barren resistance, slightly shade resistance.
Suitable temperature for breadfruit growth: 23-32℃. Large plants are not easy to transplant.
Breadfruit efficacy and role
Edible value of breadfruit
Breadfruit is a woody food plant. The fruit is rich in starch and can be eaten after roasting. Baked breadfruit tastes like bread, soft and delicious, sweet in sour, and is often used as a ration. Can be baked.
The Ami people in eastern Taiwan and the Dawu people on Orchid Island both eat the fruit of the bread tree. When the fruit is about to mature, the Ami people pick it off, peel it and cook it in water. In addition, they will give white milk to the children as an image. Chew like gum.
Breadfruit is a staple food in many tropical regions. Polynesians usually carry the root cuttings of this tree during sailing expeditions for planting on other islands. The fruit has a very rich starch content. It is usually cooked by baking, steaming, or frying before eating. The taste after cooking is similar to bread and potatoes. A bread tree can bear 200 fruits a year, which is one of the highest yields among edible plants.
The economic value of breadfruit
Breadfruit is also the raw material for various items. Boats made of breadfruit are the main means of transportation for Samoans; houses built of breadfruit can live for 50 years; Samoans even use bark to make ropes and various daily necessities.
The ornamental value of breadfruit
The wood of breadfruit is light, soft and thick, and can also be used for construction. Island residents use it like a canoe. Bread trees are suitable for planting as street trees and garden trees. Bread trees are planted in some parks in southern China for ornamental purposes only. You can also see them in some gardens in Beijing.
Breadfruit seeds can be picked and sown at the same time, germinating in about half a month, and the sowing method takes about 6-8 years to bear fruit.
Breadfruit adopts high-pressure method. You can choose 2-3-year-old sturdy branches to cut or cut from May to July, then wrap the wound with soil and wrap it with a film, and pour water through it. It can be cut off from the mother's body and planted in about 3 months.
Choose a place
Choose a sunny place, and apply enough base fertilizer in the planting hole. If the soil is heavy, add sand to improve it. During the growth of breadfruit, a small amount of sprouting will be produced. If sprouting seedlings are not needed for reproduction, they should be cut as soon as possible to prevent the consumption of nutrients. If the soil is fertile, it grows quickly.
Fertilization can be carried out according to the condition of the soil, generally 3-5 times a year, mainly compound fertilizer and organic fertilizer, and master the principle of thin application and frequent application.
When encountering dry weather in spring, summer and autumn, pay attention to add water. The mature breadfruit plants are not tolerant of transplantation. If transplanted, the roots should be cut off and re-cut before moving, and water should be sprayed to moisturize. After the new breadfruit branches and leaves grow, they can be maintained normally.
In different climate zones, breadfruits of different ages require different amounts of water. Seedlings and saplings are generally irrigated twice a week, and it is best to irrigate mature bread trees in the evening or the morning of the second day without irrigation. However, regular irrigation is conducive to better growth of breadfruit and shortens its nutritional dormancy period. Each bread tree planted in the field needs to be applied with 20 kg of fertilizer before planting, and then 10-15 kg of topdressing outside the root. To harvest breadfruit leaves as leaf forests for cultivation purposes, apply organic fertilizer about 62.5 kg/m or apply inorganic fertilizer during the dry season. Each sapling needs about 150 grams of phosphate fertilizer and 33 grams of urea; at the end of the rainy season, Each tree is topdressed with about 100 grams of urea. Spring to summer is the peak period of growth, water supply should be sufficient, and topdressing once every 1-2 months.
Bread groves that use leaves as products must be pruned at the end of the rainy season to control tree shape, enhance germination, and improve leaf quality. Mature bread trees generally do not need intensive pruning, just cut off the weak and dead branches to prevent the infection and spread of pests and diseases. Young trees should be pruned after deciduous leaves in winter.