Arrowhead (Sagittaria sagittifolia) profile

Written by Maggie

Oct 18 2021

Arrowhead (Sagittaria sagittifolia) profile

Arrowhead (Sagittaria sagittifolia) is a perennial herb that grows in paddy fields and has Arrowhead leaves and white flowers. Arrowhead is an underground bulb, yellow white or bluish white, can be eaten.

Arrowhead is a perennial aquatic herb in Alismataceae. Monocotyledons, without endosperm.  

Arrowhead picture

Arrowhead Plant - Most Common House Plant

Morphological characteristics of Arrowhead


Arrowhead is erect, 50 -- 100cm tall. The fibrous root system is fleshy, with fine branches, without root hairs, and the fibrous root is 30-40cm long. The stem is divided into short stem, stolon and bulb 3 kinds. The axillary buds of the short stem germinate and grow, pass through the base of the petiole and extend into the soil. They are stolons with a length of 40-60cm. Each plant has more than 10 stolons. Stolon insertion is about 25cm, depth of insertion is affected by climate. The temperature is higher, the top of the stolon channeling mud surface, hair leaves to take root into ramets; As the temperature drops, the stolons grow deeper, accumulating nutrients at the ends to form a bulb. Corm is 3 -- 5cm tall, 3 -- 4cm in diameter, consisting of 2 -- 3 nodes, ovate or subglobose, white or pale blue flesh, apex with terminal bud.


Leaves of Arrowhead are arrow - shaped, 25-40 x 10-20cm, petiole long, loosely organized, growing on a short stem. Shrinded stem each long section, take out a leaf, flowering plants from leaf axils draw pedicel 1-2 branches.


Flowers of Arrowhead plant are white, calyx, petals 3 each. Male flowers and stamens are numerous; Female flowers carpels many, integrated globose. When fruIt 'forms many dense achenes, flat, obliquely obovate, winged.Seed is located in the middle, has the fertility, with the seed propagates in those years only the tiny corm, the production all uses the corm to propagate asexually.

Ecological habits of Arrowhead

Arrowhead is highly adaptable and grows in shallow water of all water surfaces on land, but requires good light, mild, leeward conditions, and rich but not very deep clay soils. Wind and rain easily cause leaf stem dissection, corm growth blocked.

How to grow and care for Arrowhead


Medium to vibrant light. Tolerates low light. Not proper for intense, direct sun.


Water two to three instances per week to hold the arrowhead plant evenly moist. Water as quickly as its potting combine starts to dry out.


Tolerates common domestic humidity. Prefers excessive humidity. To maintain your Arrowhead happy, spritz with water regularly.


Average domestic temperature of 65°F-75°F. If you’re comfortable, the Arrowhead Plant is comfortable.


Grows to a lush 15”. If smaller measurement is preferred, reduce o all mountaineering stems that increase and the Arrowhead will continue to be bushy.

Arrowhead Plant is one of the plants that can grow in water

Disease control of Arrowhead

The main diseases of Arrowhead plant are leaf smut (Doassansia horiana), a fungal disease. Occurs in the high temperature wet season, leaves appear yellow bulge spots, there are black spots. Remove diseased leaves and old leaves in time and spray them with Daysen zinc liquid.

Variety classification of Arrowhead

Cultivation of Arrowhead plant with Chinese Arrowhead (S.s agittifoliavar. Sinensis), Japan Arrowhead (S.s agittifoliavar. Flore - pleno) and the United States Arrowhead (S.s agittifoliavar. Varabilis) three variants. Arrowhead likes warm reproduction with terminal buds. Germination and rooting when the temperature is 15°C; The optimum temperature for planting period and stem growth period was 25°C in daytime and 15°C at night.The optimum temperature for corn formation is 10 ~ 20°C. Large temperature difference between day and night, good sunshine, conducive to corm development. It takes about 25 ~ 40 days for the corm to grow to maturity.The mature and fat terminal bud of the corn was cut during cultivation, and the cuttings were carried out to raise seedlings. Planting in the field with 3 to 4 leaves. Plant row spacing is 40×40 cm, and about 4000 plants are planted in mu. The leaf area coefficient of the growth period was controlled between 1 and 1.5. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied when new leaves and stolons were pumped. Phosphorus and potassium fertilizer were added before bulbous enlargement. Old yellow leaves were removed and nutrient accumulation was maintained in the corresponding water layer. The main pests are aphids, rice planthoppers, diseases have smut, leaf spot and so on.Arrowhead bulbs are rich in carbohydrates (about 25.7%) and protein (5.6%). They can be cooked or processed for preparation, milling, etc.

The main varieties of Arrowhead

1. The bulb is round, the skin color is green with purple, the quality is coarse, and the maturation is early.

2. Sand: bulb oval, yellow and white skin, good quality, early maturity.

3. White Arrowhead plant: Flat round bulb, white skin, good quality, strong resistance to adversity, middle and late maturing;

4. Arrowhead: Flat round bulb, pale yellow skin, average quality, medium to late maturity;

5. Suzhou yellow: round bulb, yellow skin, good quality, late ripening.

The distribution of Arrowhead

Arrowhead is originally from China.

Arrowhead is found in temperate and tropical Asia, Europe, and Africa. In Europe, it is mostly used for viewing. China, Japan, India and Korea are used for vegetables.

Arrowhead is distributed in the Yangtze River Basin and the provinces to the south, mainly along the Taihu Lake and the Pearl River Delta in China, with a few cultivated in the north.About 20 species.

Arrowhead medicinal value

Arrowhead plant is slightly cold in nature and bitter in taste. It has the effects of detoxification, diuresis, cancer prevention, cooling and elimination of knots, strengthening heart and moistening lungs. Arrowhead can treat lumps, boils, palpitations palpitation, edema, lung heat cough, breathless, adverse urination and other diseases. Moreover, Arrowhead contains more vitamin B1 and vitamin B2, which can maintain the normal function of the body, enhance the peristalsis of the stomach, increase appetite and maintain good digestion. It is the best for the prevention and treatment of constipation.

Arrowhead is rich in starch, protein and a variety of vitamins, as well as trace elements such as potassium, phosphorus and zinc, and has a regulating and promoting effect on human functions. What's more, Arrowhead has a beneficial anti-inflammatory effect on bacteria. Traditional Chinese medicine believes that Arrowhead has a taste of ganping, nourishes the lung, tonifies the middle and replenishes qi. Therefore, Arrowhead not only has rich nutritional value, but also can defeat fire and reduce inflammation, and assist in the treatment of tuberculosis, injury, cough and asthma.

Diet: Although rich in nutrition, but should not eat more, eat more is a bowel wind hemorrhoids leak, collapse in the belt, make people retching, loss of teeth, color, dry skin, etc.; Especially for pregnant women, they should be cautious.

Arrowhead is not eaten raw. It is cooked like taro and has a slightly bitter taste.