Andrographis Profile

Written by Joy

Nov 05 2020

Andrographis Profile

Andrographis paniculata is an annual herb, 4~8 cm long, and 1~2.5 cm wide. It is a kind of medicinal plant, which has the effects of clearing away heat, detoxifying, reducing inflammation, reducing swelling, and relieving pain.

Andrographis morphological characteristics

Andrographis is an annual herb. Its stem is 50-80 cm high, 4-sided, and the lower part is branched with enlarged nodes. The leaves are ovate-oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 4 to 8 cm long, 1 to 2.5 cm wide, and slightly obtuse at the tip. The upper leaf of the inflorescence axis is small, the raceme is terminal and axillary, integrating large panicles; bracts and bracteoles are tiny, about 1 mm long; calyx lobes are triangular-lanceolate, about 3 mm long, with glandular hairs and The corolla is white and small. The lower lip has a purple band pattern, about 12 mm long, with glandular hairs and pubescent hairs on the outside. It has 2 lip shapes, the upper lip is slightly 2-lobed, and the lower lip is 3-lobed. The corolla tube and lip of Andrographis paniculata The petals are the same lengths. Andrographis paniculata has two stamens, two-loculed anthers, and pilose at the base and one side of the filament. The capsule is flat, with a groove in the middle, about 10 mm long, with sparse glandular hairs; its seeds are 12, square, and wrinkled.
It is commonly cultivated in Fujian, Guangdong, Hainan, Guangxi, and Yunnan in China, and introduced in Jiangsu and Shaanxi; the place of origin may be in South Asia. Australia is also cultivated.

Andrographis efficacy and role

Antipyretic effect

Both the lactone of Andrographis paniculata and neoandrographolide can inhibit and delay the increase in body temperature caused by pneumococcus and hemolytic streptococcus, while the latter is not as strong as the former. For rabbits with fever caused by typhoid and paratyphoid vaccine or rats with fever caused by 2,4-dinitrophenol, deoxyandrographolide, andrographolide, neoandrographolide, lactone, dehydroandrographolide are all It has a certain antipyretic effect, of which dehydroandrographolide has the strongest effect. Intraperitoneal injection of deoxyandrographolide and neoandrographolide in suspension can delay the time of body temperature rise and reduce the degree of body temperature rise in rabbits with fever caused by subcutaneous injection of pneumococcus and hemolytic streptococcus cultures.

Anti-inflammatory effects of Andrographis paniculata

Increased permeability of capillaries in the skin or abdominal cavity of mice caused by xylene and acetic acid. Gavage of deoxyandrographolide or dehydroandrographolide can reduce the exudation of capillary walls. Compared with the control, P<0.05 or P< 0.01. Deoxyandrographolide has a significant inhibitory effect on hemorrhagic and necrotic exudation caused by croton oil in rats. Deoxyandrographolide, andrographolide, and neoandrographolide at a high dose of 100mg/capsule for 7.5 hours have a significant inhibitory effect on the migration of white blood cells in the rat CMC capsule. The experiment also observed that these four kinds of andrographolide have varying degrees of excitatory effect on the adrenal cortex function of mice, with dehydrated andrographolide being the strongest. Andrographolide and neoandrographolide can inhibit Escherichia coli.

The influence of Andrographis paniculata on immune function

Andrographis paniculata decoction can improve the ability of peripheral blood leukocytes to swallow Staphylococcus aureus in vitro. It has been reported that oral administration of Andrographis paniculata can enhance tumor patients and other patients or healthy people to the delayed skin hypersensitivity caused by old tuberculin. Andrographolin injection can also enhance the function of phagocytes. The in vitro test of 3H-thymidine infiltration into lymphocytes showed that Andrographis paniculata water-soluble derivative injection has an inhibitory effect on the promotion of 3H-thymidine infiltration by PHA. Dehydrated andrographolide succinate half ester (DAS) synthesized with andrographolide can also inhibit the delayed-type hypersensitivity of mice induced by 2,4-trinitrochlorobenzene. Andrographolide can obviously inhibit the carbon clearance rate in venous blood. Andrographis paniculata preparation, Xindeping (containing esters and ketones) can increase the serum lysozyme level in mice.

Andrographis cultivation

Site preparation

Andrographis likes a hot and humid climate. Like sunshine and fat. The optimum temperature for seed germination and seedling growth period is 25~30℃. When the temperature drops to 15~20℃, the growth will be slow; when the temperature drops to about 8℃, the growth will stagnate; when the temperature drops to about 0℃ or frost, the plants will all wither. Fertile, loose, well-drained acidic and neutral sandy loam soil is suitable for cultivation, and alkaline soil with pH 8.0 can still grow normally.

The breeding method of Andrographis paniculata

Seed propagation: seedling transplanting method or direct seeding method, dragon mainly adopts the seedling transplanting method. When the fruits are brown in the same period from September to October, pick them in batches before the dew is dry in the morning. Place them in a cool place and ripen for a few days. Cover them with a hood to prevent bounce loss of seeds. After the pods are all cracked, remove the peels. , Get the seeds. The seeds of Andrographis paniculata are small, with a 1,000-grain weight of 0.93~1.52g. The seed coat is hard and there is a layer of cockles outside, which requires high seeding technology. The seedbed soil is required to be fertile and loose, raked flat, and thin. Before sowing, the seeds should be soaked with warm water with fine sandpaper or sanding to remove the wax of the seed coat, and then placed in a 30℃ incubator to accelerate the germination, and then sow in Guangdong, Fujian, and other places Spring is from late February to early March; in autumn, it is sown on the high bed seedlings in July. In Jiangsu, Zhejiang, and Sichuan, seedlings are raised in hotbeds in mid-to-late March, and cold beds are raised in April. Greenhouses in North China and Northwest China should be in early and mid-March, hotbeds in early April, and Yangzi in mid-April and plastic greenhouses should be planted on April 15-20. Seedbed management is mainly to control proper temperature and humidity. Before emergence, the seedbed should be kept moist, and the relative humidity in the border should be kept at 70%~80%. After the seedlings emerge, the soil moisture should be controlled to prevent damping-off. The seedlings are 6~7cm high and can be transplanted when there are 3~4 pairs of true leaves.

Field management of Andrographis paniculata

It is mainly watered in time to help the seedlings to take new roots. After that, weeding and topdressing will be done every 15~20d. The topdressing is mainly nitrogen fertilizer, which can flow human and livestock manure, urea, etc., especially in 6, 7, 8 The monthly field management is very important, it is necessary to apply more nitrogen fertilizer and water frequently. When the plant height is 30~40cm, soil can be cultivated to prevent wind damage.

The pest control of Andrographis paniculata

The disease of Andrographis paniculata is blight, which occurs in 1~2 pairs of true leaf stage, which can reduce soil moisture. Treat the soil with 50% carbendazim, or irrigate the diseased area with 1000 times liquid. Damping-off occurs when there are 2~3 pairs of true leaves. Temperature can be controlled, ventilation should be paid attention to, and seedbed management should be strengthened. Black stem disease occurs in the adult plant stage, and field management can be strengthened to remove stagnant water in time and avoid continuous cropping. During the onset of Andrographis paniculata, spray or water the diseased area with 50% carbendazim 1000 times solution. There are also epidemics, spray, or shallow irrigation with 50% carbendazim 1000 times solution during disease. There are also diseases such as epidemics and viral diseases. Insect pests include cotton bollworm and mole cricket.