Black nightshade (Solanum nigrum) profile

Written by Maggie

Mar 23 2021

Black nightshade (Solanum nigrum) profile

Black Nightshade (Solanum nigrum L.), also called simply black nightshade or blackberry nightshade, is an annual herb with a grass height of 30 -- 120 cm; Stem is erect, much-branched; Leaves are ovate or heart-shaped alternate, subentire.

Black nightshade is found almost all over China. They live near fields, wastelands and villages. Black nightshade is widely distributed in temperate to tropical regions of Europe, Asia and the Americas.

Black nightshade picture

Black nightshade

Morphological characteristics of black nightshade


Black Nightshade is an annual erect herb, 0.25-1 m tall, stems angulate or inconspicuous, green or purple, subglabrous or puberulent.


Leaves of black nightshade are ovate, 2.5 -- 10 x 1.5 -- 5.5 cm long, apically cuspidate, basally cuneate to broadly cuneate extending down to petiole, entire or each side irregularly undulate, smooth or sparsely pubescent on both sides, veins 5 -- 6 on each side, petiole 1 -- 2 cm long.


Black nightshade is a cincinnus axillary, composed of 3-6- (10) flowers, pedicels ca. 1-2.5 cm, pedicels ca.5 mm, subglabrous or pubescent; Calyx is small, shallowly cup-shaped, ca. 1.5 -- 2 mm in diam., teeth ovoid, apex rounded, base at Angle of the junction between teeth; Corolla is white, tube concealed within the calyx, less than 1 mm long, corolla ca. 2.5 mm, 5-lobed, lobes ovoid, ca. 2 mm long; Filaments are short, anthers yellow, ca. 1.2 mm, ca. 4 times the length of filaments, apex pore inward; Ovary of black nightshade is ovate, ca. 0.5 mm in diam., style ca. 1.5 mm long, white tomentose below middle, stigma small, capitate.

Black nightshade blooms in summer.


Berries of Black nightshade spherical, ca. 8 mm in diameter, Black when ripe. Seeds are numerous, subovate, ca. 1.5 -- 2 mm in diam., compressed on both sides.

The ecological habits of black nightshade

The suitable temperature for the growth of Black nightshade is 22-30℃, and the suitable temperature for the flowering and fruiting period is 15-20℃, under which the seed setting rate is high. The soil is not strictly required. It grows well on the loam with rich organic matter, strong water and fertility preservation, and on the clayey soil with lack of organic matter and poor aeration, with poor root development, weak plant growth and poor commercial property. The appropriate pH value of the soil is 5.5-6.5. In summer and autumn, it is difficult to grow in high temperature and high humidity open fields. In winter and spring, open field planting results in the slow growth of plants, easy aging of tender shoots and poor commercial property. Therefore, in order to meet the market demand, it can be cultivated in the protected fields all year round.

Black nightshade lives near fields, heath fields and villages. Black nightshade is widely distributed in temperate to tropical regions of Europe, Asia and America.

Black nightshade

The distribution of black nightshade

Black Nightshade originated in China, widely distributed in the temperate and tropical regions of the world, distributed throughout China, mainly produced in Lianyungang, Tongshan, Pian County, Sheyang, Wujiang, Jiangning, Luanyang and other places.

Black nightshade uses

Medical use

The whole plant of black nightshade can be used in medicine and can relieve blood stasis and swelling, clear heat and detoxify.

Garden use

In the garden, black nightshade can be used for the introduction and domestication of new varieties, hybrid breeding.

Black nightshade